Can Mushrooms Cause Mystical Experiences?

Can Mushrooms Cause Mystical Experiences?

Questions answered on this page:

  • What are mystical experiences?
  • Can taking psilocybin cause mystical experiences?
  • What is the history of psilocybin usage?
  • What are the benefits of taking mushrooms?

While our modern usage of psychedelics can sometimes feel like a cultural relic of the 1960s, they have a long history of consumption in Mesoamerican religious ceremonies and practices. The connection between psychedelics and spiritual or mystical experiences has long held, and that naturally makes today’s psychonauts curious about the history of their practice.

While things like ‘mystical experiences’ can seem hard to quantify or understand through analytical research, the growing body of study being done into mushrooms can’t help but show these effects when they do occur—and the powerful benefits to be had from a mystical experience of your own.

We have a number of articles to discuss today, so let’s dive in!

History of Usage

While psilocybin mushrooms grow naturally across the globe, their major pre-modern usage was amongst the various peoples of Mesoamerica. There, they have a long and storied history of usage in religious ceremonies and mystical experiences. We’ll start by looking at a few studies that describe this historical context, and that also provide a bridge forward to our modern moment where mushrooms are becoming evermore popular.

  1. Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures

Authors: F.J. Carod-Artal

Journal of Publication: Neurologia

Date of Publication: January 2015

Summary: This article attempts to provide an anthropological investigation of the history of the usage of hallucinogens and psychedelics substances in the Americas. The author notes the long historical track record of their usage (up to 3500 years in Central Mexico!), and also the heavy importance that hallucinogens more generally played in the mysticism, religious experiences, and the divination practices of the Mayan and Aztec peoples. These included Psilocybe cubensis, the magic mushroom that we all know and love today.

  1. Diversity, biology, and history of psilocybin-containing fungi: Suggestions for research and technological development

Authors: R.C. Van Court, M.S. Wiseman, K.W. Meyer, D.J. Ballhorn, K.R. Amses, J.C.Slot, B.T.M.Dentinger, R.Garibay-Orijelg, and J.K.Uehling

Journal of Publication: Fungal Biology

Date of Publication: April 2022

Summary: The authors of this study helped to contextualize some of the history of psilocybin mushroom consumption, and point to a manuscript from the Mixtec people as the first recording of the usage of these mushrooms. An image of their gods consuming mushrooms points to the central nature of the mushrooms in the mystical and religious experiences of the pre-Columbus people of Mesoamerica. While the Spanish attempted to root out the practice, it has continued into the present day and bears a special significance in the religious history of the Americas.

  1. Psilocybin: from ancient magic to modern medicine

Authors: David E. Nichols

Journal of Publication: The Journal of Antibiotics

Date of Publication: May 12, 2020

Summary: Our third article bridges the gap between the pre-Columbian history of usage in the Americas to our usage and cultivation of these mushrooms in the present. We likely have a 16th-century Spanish Franciscan friar named Bernardino de Sahagún to thank for the modern interest boom in psychedelics—his anthropological studies in Mexico included the usage of “teonanacatl”, the sacred mushroom of the indigenous peoples. While this wasn’t well received by historians for a long time, there is a direct throughline from this manuscript to Wasson’s seminal 1957 essay “Seeking the Magic Mushroom” that put psilocybin squarely into the zeitgeist.

We have established that psychedelic mushrooms were important for religious rituals, which makes it a little surprise to see the modern usage so heavily tied to mysticism and spiritual experiences. While there was a long history of these practices pre-Columbus, the Spanish tried to put an end to pagan practices and forced these practices underground.

Psilocybin only really re-enters the modern consciousness in the 50s and 60s, which led to a boom in experimentation and research before falling afoul of American drug laws. But with the demonstrable benefits to taking psilocybin, there has been a corresponding relaxing of policy that has led to a flourishing of research in the field over the last twenty years.

Mystical Experiences: A Closer Look

But what exactly is a mystical experience? The inherent subjectivity of such an idea makes it hard to properly discuss unless we’re all on the same page about what it is we’re talking about. To that end, we will be using the definition provided by Alan Watts in a review done in 1968, early into the modern research boom about psychedelics. He describes mystical experiences as “those peculiar states of consciousness in which the individual discovers himself to be one continuous process with God, with the Universe, with the Ground of Being, or whatever name he may use by cultural conditioning or personal preference for the ultimate and eternal reality”.

This feeling of unity and oneness is reported frequently by people taking psilocybin and these experiences can be incredibly powerful. in addition to taking on greater meaning in one’s life in the future. People frequently report taking a high dosage of psilocybin as being one of the more important or meaningful moments in their lives, and that seems to be inherently connected to these powerful spiritual events.

While history may show a record of mushrooms being used in spiritual and mystical purposes, it doesn’t necessarily follow that they’re the catalyst to these mystical experiences. Luckily, the evidentiary track record does that well enough! There are three studies that we’ll be discussing that will help to establish some evidence for the correlation between psilocybin and these mystical experiences, how these experiences could be beneficial for the participant, and potential causal mechanisms for the relationship.

  1. Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance

Authors: R. R. Griffiths, W. A. Richards, U. McCann, and R. Jesse

Journal of Publication: Psychopharmacology

Date of Publication: May 27, 2006

Summary: The first of these studies attempted to provide a more rigorous and quantifiable explanation for how and why people have these mystical experiences, and with what frequency. With a double-blind and multi-staged experimental design, the authors were able to keep both the participants and the monitors in the dark about who was truly receiving the psilocybin. They found a high rate of mystical experiences among those who took psilocybin, and participants consistently reported the experience of taking a high dose of psilocybin as within the top five most spiritually significant moments in their lives. When coupled with the result that 79% of participants found that psilocybin either “moderately” (50%) or “very much” (29%) improved their general satisfaction with life, it’s not surprising that these moments are so important to people, or that they can take on such importance in people’s individual narratives.

  1. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors

Authors: Roland R. Griffiths, Matthew W. Johnson, William A. Richards, Brian D. Richards, Robert Jesse, Katherine A. MacLean, Frederick S. Barrett, Mary P. Cosimano, and Maggie A. Klinedinst

Journal of Publication: Psychopharmacology

Date of Publication: October 11, 2017

Summary: This study divided the participants into three groups and provided them with different dosages and levels of counseling and spiritual guidance in several sessions over two months, and then evaluated the change in the participants after six months. They found significant increases in the quality of life metrics they used between the group that had a low dose of psilocybin and the two that had higher doses. The differences in results seemed to be more tied to the dosage strength than to the level of support. Still, they also found that the high dose group who had a lot of support during their sessions ended up performing slightly better on the metrics than the group that only had a moderate amount of support. This suggests that while both the dosage and the setting are important, the dosage tends to matter more for occasioning mystical experiences.

  1. Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences: Phenomenology and Neural Correlates

Authors: Frederick S. Barrett and Roland R. Griffiths

Journal of Publication: Current Topics in Behavioural Neuroscience

Date of Publication: August 23, 2019

Summary: One important aspect of our final article is that it serves as a literature review and aggregator, compiling many of the more critical results from other studies in the field and distilling them down. When looking at the results laid out together, the correlations between psilocybin and mystical experiences and between those experiences and overall quality of life metrics become very clear. The authors also attempt to describe the commonalities between the mystical experiences occasioned by psilocybin and those brought on through meditative practices and to establish a hypothesis for a causal mechanism for these experiences.

The long history of usage of psychedelic mushrooms in religious and mystical ceremonies combined with the rigorous experimental design of the studies done in the last 20 years shows the strong correlation between psilocybin and these mystical experiences. The studies that have been done have also shown improvements in the general quality of life and mental health of participants, which suggests that these experiences can have strong therapeutic benefits.

The studies also reaffirmed that the single most important variable in these experiences is dosage, with higher dosages being much more likely to occasion these profound experiences. While set and setting obviously play a significant role in your experiences too and the studies were conducted in such a way as to support these experiences, it doesn’t seem to be as significant as the dosage.


There seems to be a strong correlation between taking psilocybin and having mystical experiences, and it also seems like the mystical experiences are beneficial in myriad ways for the majority of participants. While this is obviously not a guarantee that the same experiences will hold true for everyone, we can safely establish a connection between these ideas through larger sample sizes.

If you’d like to have some mystical experiences of your own, remember that while dosage is the most important factor, the environment that you’re in will strongly impact your experiences as well. A relaxing environment with supportive people around you will really help you to have the best time possible.

Top 10 Magic Mushroom Hikes in Vancouver


We all know that hiking & magic mushrooms go together like peanut butter and jelly; those Canadians who live in and around Vancouver are especially blessed with some of the most amazing, gorgeous, and secluded hikes in super close proximity to the city! We’ve selected hikes in Vancouver proper as well as in some of the surrounding cities (but still within the Lower Mainland.)

Without further adieu, here’s the list!

1. Stanley Park – Lighthouse Loop

Within minutes of leaving downtown Vancouver, head towards the sea (west) and you will find a perfect place to hike amongst the trees and pick some magic mushrooms. This trail is located in Stanley Park, which is an extremely popular location for runners, walkers, cyclists and tourists.

The loop is about nine kilometers (or five miles) and is an easy hike, with enough uphills to get your heart pumping and downhills for a fast pace. The scenery in this park is absolutely beautiful: it has a lighthouse, gorgeous trees and flowers in the summertime and even a large pond that you can fish in (if you’re of age, and have a fishing licence). You’ll be able to find many quiet spots along this trail for camping and mushroom picking.

If you’re interested in seeing wildlife, Stanley Park is the best place to be. It houses bears, coyotes, raccoons and seagulls (to name a few). Viewing these creatures can be tricky – they don’t like people too close by – but it’s possible if you’re willing to hike quietly and spend some time at the park.

For lunch, there are many nearby restaurants like The Sandbar (seen on Diners, Drive-ins and Dives), which has great seafood. If you don’t feel like leaving the park for some nourishment, head to one of the smaller beaches along Lighthouse Loop or Second Beach. Both offer excellent spots to eat your lunch while enjoying the view.

On average, it takes about 2-3 hours to complete this loop (longer if you’re not used to long hikes). Hike at your own pace and enjoy nature in one of Vancouver’s most beautiful locations.

2. Garden City Lands – Quarry Trail

This trail is also within minutes from downtown Vancouver. Head towards the sea (west) and go for a run. This park has a ton of forest, and if you keep going deeper into the woods, you will find more mushrooms.

The Quarry Trail is located next to the Gastown steam clock, so remember to check out that landmark on your way through!

If you are really interested in finding some mushrooms, head out here early in the morning. This park is very popular with joggers and dog-walkers, but if you get there early enough, you will be able to see some of the park’s natural inhabitants.

The trail has several sections that form loops (yellow, green, and orange). If it is your first time hiking this trail, keep in mind that you’ll need to complete at least two loops for a full run.

Afterwards, stop by one of the many cafes or restaurants nearby, and refuel.

The trail ends at a small open area with seating along the edges. This is a perfect place to read a book or have a picnic on a sunny day.

Be aware that this trail can get very muddy during wet weather, so wear appropriate footwear. Also, even though there are several water fountains along the trail, it would be wise to bring your own water bottle.

If you are looking for something a little less strenuous, or if you want to take in the greenery while stretching your legs, The Quarry Trail is perfect for that!

3. Deadman’s Island – North Bluff Trail

North Bluff Trail is one of the most beautiful hiking trails I have ever been on. It starts at Deadman’s Island in Stanley Park near Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada.

The trailhead is just off Pipeline Road behind Siwash Rock not far from the totem poles. From here you will trek through forests for about half an hour until you reach the North Bluff, a large sloping rock with ocean vistas to the north and west. It is a stunning sight.

There are a few places where you can sit down and enjoy the view in complete privacy, so it is ideal for meditation or just spending some time alone contemplating life.

The trail itself is also very interesting. Huge trees tower above you, some more than a thousand years old, and there are many fallen logs that are perfect for sitting on. Wildlife too abounds here; if you keep your eyes open while hiking along you will see chipmunks darting about in the undergrowth, squirrels nimbly climbing trees, and birds of all kinds. You might even see some deer or raccoon tracks along the way.

The only downside is that the trail does not loop back to where you started when you reach the bluff, so you need to retrace your steps when you are done enjoying this phenomenal sight.

4. Burnaby Mountain – Bob’s Hill Trail Loop

Hiking in Burnaby Mountain – Bob’s Hill Trail Loop is a fantastic way to spend the day. The trailhead starts at the north end of Sprott Street, right next to Simon Fraser University. There are several trails within this hike, and it is mainly just a destination for hikers and bikers looking to get away from the city while still being within a one hour drive from Vancouver.

This trail is the least strenuous of all trails in Burnaby Mountain, but there are still some steep uphill sections, and it will take around two hours to complete the loop returning to your starting point. Almost all of this hike is surrounded by trees or shrubs, so you will hardly see any wildlife until you reach the summit. Once you do reach the top, Bob’s Hill is not a flat-top mountain, so expect to see another downhill section before your return to where you begun.

During winter months when there has been a lot of snowfall in Vancouver and surrounding areas, this hike will become covered in snow and ice. It is highly recommended that you do not attempt this trail during those months as the hike becomes very difficult and dangerous without proper equipment.

In good weather, this trail provides a large variety of wildlife including birds, rabbits, deer, chipmunks and squirrels. It is very common to see a few of these animals along your journey. There are also several ponds along the route that are home to frogs, turtles and fish. If you choose to go swimming along your hike there is a small pond just before you reach the summit of Bob’s Hill that will be very refreshing on a hot summer day.

5. Golden Ears Provincial Park – South Trails

Burnaby is a city in British Columbia, Canada. It has about 230,000 people living in the area and is part of Metro Vancouver, with 2.4 million living in that area as a whole. The total land area of Burnaby is 61 square kilometers (23 square miles).

The geography around Burnaby can make for some great hiking, including the South Trails in Golden Ears Provincial Park. The trails are very diverse, ranging from easy to difficult. There are many different ecosystems, each with their own unique wildlife and scenery. Many of the trails at Golden Ears have views over Burrard Inlet and across to the Coast Mountains.

There are more than 20 kilometers of trails across the South end of Golden Ears. The trails are all very well marked, so you can find your way around easily if you are by yourself or with a large group. You should make sure you check out Lake Lovely Water Trail before heading back to civilization.

Some of the wildlife that you can see when hiking in Burnaby Mountain – Golden Ears Provincial Park – South Trails include deer, squirrels, rabbits, raccoons, coyotes, hawks and eagles. Birds such as loons and thrushes can be heard in the woods, and there are salmon in the river.

There are several ways to get to Burnaby Mountain and Golden Ears Park if you live well outside of Vancouver. You could drive or take public transportation, but it may be easier to just catch a ride with someone who lives closer. Keep in mind that trails are open to the public only during the daytime, so you will need to leave before sunset or risk getting locked in for the night.

The South Trails make for some good hiking and offer a range of difficulty levels. You can see many types of wildlife and beautiful scenery along these well-marked trails. Being close to Vancouver, these trails are easy to get to and can make for a great day out.

6. Deep Cove – Baden-Powell Trail Loop

One of the best places to hike in Vancouver is at Deep Cove on the Baden-Powell Trail. This trail has beautiful ocean and mountain scenery, wildlife such as eagles and chipmunks; but most importantly it’s a great opportunity for people who love outdoor adventure sports such as rock climbing, or biking (mountain or road). The best way to get there is by driving north from downtown Vancouver, crossing the Ironworkers bridge and once on the North shore follow the signs for Deep Cove.

Once you get into Deep Cove village head up hill toward Panorama Drive. Follow this main road until you see a gated dirt parking lot on your left hand side, which is the trail head. From here the trail begins with some deep, dark forest that’s beautiful any time of year. Be sure to bring a flashlight in case you get caught out on the trail after sunset; there are no lights out there.

Once you get out of the woods and into the clearing, you will come to Nancy Greene Park – Deep Cove’s main attraction. Here there is a great view of Indian Arm, colourful bluffs where many eagles nest, and even an old airplane landing strip that was once used for flying fish in from nearby Granville Island.

From Nancy Greene park, if you take the trail up the hill to your right it will lead out to a bunch of old mining equipment. Here there is lots of big boulders and rocks for climbing; both alone and as part of multi-pitch climbs. Back down at sea level there are many interconnecting trails that go in all directions, which is why this area makes for a great hike. After you’ve had your fill of exploring the park, take any one of the trails back down to Panorama Drive and make your way back to Deep Cove village.

7. Hanes Valley Trail – Grouse Mountain

Hanes Valley Trail is a popular hiking trail near Vancouver, BC. The trail leads up to Grouse Mountain passing through some forest, climbing steeply at times and offering wonderful views of surrounding mountains. Wildlife are often spotted along the way including birds, squirrels, rabbits or coyotes.

The trailhead to Hanes Valley Trail is located in a residential area of north Vancouver with nearby bus stops from where you can reach the trail. The trail starts by climbing steeply through some forest, and when it levels out after about 15 minutes it passes one of the main viewpoints along the trail. This viewpoint offers views of Vancouver’s downtown, Seymour Mountain and Grouse Mountain. It also offers a good view of Hanes Valley with its surrounding mountains like Mount Fromme, Nancy Greene Lake and others.

After this viewpoint the trail continues to climb up steeply at times, offering plenty of great views along the way. There are three more viewpoints, all about 10 minutes apart from each other. The last one offers a view of Grouse Mountain itself.

This trail is also popular with mountain bikers who often use it for biking down in summertime when there is little snow on Grouse Mountain. Though the Hanes Valley Trail is quite popular with hikers, it’s still a good idea to come early in the morning or later in the evening during summertime if you’re looking for more of a wilderness experience and want to avoid crowds.

The trail ends at Grouse Mountain where there are numerous activities to enjoy. You can ride the Grouse Mountain Skyride up, visit the grizzly bear sanctuary and even go zip lining (not free).

9. Deep Cove – Quarry Rock

Quarry rock is a gorgeous and popular hiking spot located in the Deep Cove area of North Vancouver. The hike itself is relatively easy, but be prepared for a couple steep sections and to climb over some large rocks.

The trail itself begins at the end of Panorama Drive, accessible from Lighthouse Road. When you drive up to the trailhead, you will see a small parking lot and the trail.

The first part of the trail is paved and relatively flat so it’s an excellent warm up for those who aren’t used to hiking. If you continue past this section you will reach a fork in the road with one path leading to Quarry Rock and another leading to Dog Mountain.

To get to Quarry Rock’s summit, you need to take the right path. As you hike up this section of the trail, there are a couple points that have look-out areas with benches where you can sit and enjoy the view back into Vancouver. This section is relatively steep, so if you’re not used to hiking you might want to prepare for a bit of work.

Once you reach the top, there are stairs that will take you up to the top of Quarry Rock where beautiful views of Indian Arm await you. At the very edge, you’ll find a little plaque telling what this rock used to be before it was cut down and

10. Pitt Lake – Porteau Cove Trail

Pitt Lake is located near Porteau Cove Provincial Park, which has trails for hiking and biking. It has the best views of any hike in BC, so you can’t miss it if you are in town!

The trail leads along Taylor Way, then follows a gravel road that leads to the Swift Creek Trail. Follow this trail for about 1 kilometre until you reach another junction. The left path will take you along the wooden boardwalk over Cheekeye Fan to Porteau Cove, while the right path will take you up to Oval Lake and down to Brentcliffe Road.

For the first kilometre, you will be surrounded by tall evergreens and a carpet of soft needles. The trail is well-defined and wide enough to allow two people to pass each other comfortably. As you hike higher, the trees thin out and the scenery becomes more breathtaking. You can expect to see squirrels, raccoons, chipmunks, and birds. If you are lucky, you might even see an eagle!

The boardwalk around Cheekeye Fan is a great place to rest, as it has many benches along the way. There is also a geocache hidden on the boardwalk that will lead you to the highest point in Brentcliffe Provincial Park.

20 Quick Tips to Boost your Creativity


In life, we are constantly being tested in different ways to see what our limits and capabilities truly are. Creativity is no different: it is a gift that not everyone possesses and the only way to strengthen this gift is through constant diligence and practice. All that being said, we all sometimes feel stuck – I know I do!

So, we’ve compiled a list of some of some simple things anyone can do to boost their creativity. If you’re looking for a way to get past your writer’s/artist’s/musician’s/whatever-you-like’s block, then this tip might help! So, here you have: 20 ways to boost your creativity!

The List

1) Practice every day – the only way to get better is by making mistakes, and there is no easier way than by practicing. It may not be perfect, but you will find out exactly where your weak spots are!

2) Listen to new types of music – explore the depths of different genres and see what moves you. If it doesn’t move you – don’t keep listening to it! It’s important to keep your mind fresh and new ideas flowing.

3) Keep a notebook on you at all times – there is nothing more frustrating than when you get an incredible idea, but then forget about it minutes later. Make sure that never happens again by keeping a small notebook with you wherever you go. You can even record audio – just be sure to back it up!

4) Be willing to fail – don’t be afraid of being wrong. In fact, if you never fail, you will NEVER get anywhere. Without failure, there is no success. Remember that and embrace it.

5) Take a break every now and then – creativity comes from the world around us and new ideas can come from anywhere.

6) Look at things differently – see the positive in every experience, even if it is extremely difficult to find. It is a good way to get out of a rut and provoke the creative juices going.

7) Go outside – being active in your daily life has a direct link to your creativity, as well as preventing you from becoming dreary and boring. There is no better way to get new inspiration than by coming in contact with different types of people and life styles.

8) Be social – it’s not about the quantity of friends you have, but rather the quality. It’s important to find people who will understand your creativity, who you can bounce ideas off of, and who will help you grow. This may take some time – but it’s well worth it!

9) Take a walk every now and then – again, creativity comes from the world around us. So occasionally disconnecting to let your mind absorb everything is an excellent way to come up with fantastic ideas and unique solutions.

10) Enjoy yourself – this one seems painfully obvious, but it’s lost on some people! Creativity is meant to be fun, not laborious. If you don’t enjoy the process of creation – you will never enjoy the end result.

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11) Try boosting your creativity with psilocybin microdose capsules – microdosing is an increasingly popular method many people are using to help get the creative juices flowing. You can read all about the history and benefits of microdosing including at our guide here. We here at Shroom Bros offer mail order magic mushroom microdose capsules shipped to anywhere in Canada!

12) Remember that ideas are everywhere – don’t just stop at the first idea you have. There are plenty more where that one came from, so stay positive and keep trying!

13) Be open to everything – let new ideas flow freely into your mind without hesitation. If you feel yourself closing off to an idea, simply push yourself to think about it for longer. It will become easier the more you try!

14) Remember that you are not always right – if someone else’s idea is better than yours, go with it. You can improve on it and make something even more amazing! Nothing will kill your creativity faster than thinking you are the best there ever was.

15) Get to know people – this one may be difficult for some people who are more introverted, but it is extremely important to get out there and meet new people. Most likely, they will be more than happy to share their ideas with you – after all, isn’t that what friends are for?

16) Be selfless – forget about yourself for once. Think about the needs of others and how your creativity could help them in some way. If you are at a loss for ideas, just ask someone close to you if they need any help – they may surprise you.

17) Have fun – sometimes the best ideas come when we least expect it. So don’t feel bad if something pops into your head while watching television or playing video games! It’s normal and it’s okay!

18) Stay true to yourself – while you should be open to other people’s ideas, you should never change your goals and dreams. Keep trying to achieve them through your creativity.

19) Surround yourself with the right people – the people in our lives have a major impact on who we are. Make sure you are surrounded by people who will support your creativity and talents, not tear them down.

20) Think outside the box – this is hands down the best way to boost your creativity, but it’s also the most difficult. Tearing down all of your old barriers can be an excruciatingly hard process, but it will push you to new

Top 11 Reasons to Try Magic Mushrooms Today


If you’re somebody who’s never used magic mushrooms before and you’re curious about them, we’ve compiled a list of 11 fantastic reasons for you to make the jump and try them today. We’re always here to help and support psychonauts of all levels of experience to have the best trip possible!

1. Magic Mushrooms are Natural

One of the best reasons to try magic mushrooms is that they are natural, with no chemicals or artificial ingredients added. Many people are choosing alternative methods for their health and wellbeing because many pharmaceuticals have side effects that can be worse than what they were trying to treat in the first place. With this new trend towards natural alternatives, magic mushrooms have become a viable option.

Mushrooms are a natural food because they grow from the ground. In other words, they are not processed or altered in any way. They do not add artificial ingredients to change their color, appearance or taste from what nature gave them to attract animals and insects that would transport the spores around.

The next time you see a mushroom in the grocery store, think about the fact that they were probably growing in some forest or grassy area when someone came along and picked them. They did not add anything to make this food taste better or look different. Mushrooms are straight from nature and with no additives or chemicals added. You can trust that they are doing what nature intended them to do.

2. Magic Mushrooms Are Safe

Although magic mushrooms were listed as a schedule I drug by the U.S. government under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, that designation was relaxed in 2001. It is currently listed alongside drugs like heroin and LSD, but it is considered to be exempt from penalties associated with those drugs. There are no laws against growing or possessing mushrooms, although they are still listed as a schedule I drug.

Magic mushrooms can be taken safely without the fear of harmful side effects by most people. They do not raise blood pressure or produce other harmful physical changes in your body like other recreational drugs might. Magic mushrooms are safe for nearly everyone to use.

3. Magic Mushrooms Improve Creativity

Medical studies show that magic mushrooms can help you come up with new ideas, whether it’s cooking a new recipe, starting a business or solving an issue in your personal life. During the psychedelic experience, people have reported finding solutions to problems they had been struggling with for months or years.

Because of the way magic mushrooms affect your brain, they can help you come up with new ideas and solutions to problems that might be holding you back. They do this by increasing your creativity and giving you a sense of wonderment about the world around you. You will see things differently than before, so it may help you to solve problems that seemed impossible before.

4. Magic Mushrooms Fight Depression

As more people are finding out about the benefits of magic mushrooms, they are also learning about their medicinal uses. People who suffer from anxiety and/or depression can use magic mushrooms as a safe alternative to pharmaceuticals or psychotherapy. Although it is not a cure for these issues, it can help to improve your mood and provide you with a sense of calmness that may not be available through other methods.

Although it is important to note that not everyone finds magic mushrooms helpful in treating depression and anxiety. If this is an issue you suffer from you should consult your doctor or therapist before trying magic mushrooms to treat your depression.

5. Magic Mushrooms Reduce Addiction

Mental health professionals have found that magic mushrooms can help people who are battling addictions to drugs or alcohol. Because of the way magic mushrooms affect your brain it is believed that they can be used in conjunction with traditional treatment methods to break addiction cycles more quickly, causing less pain and discomfort along the way. Because magic mushrooms can help to fight addictions, they also might help you avoid relapses and other consequences that could occur when someone tries to stop using drugs or alcohol on their own without professional assistance or support.

6. You can Buy Magic Mushrooms Online in Canada

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If you live in Canada, and you’re interested in trying magic mushrooms, you don’t even need to leave your house – you can buy shrooms online directly through our Shroom Shop!

7. They Have Spiritual Uses & Help You Stay Grounded

Magic mushrooms have spiritual uses too. People who want to explore their spirituality or who are already following a spiritual path can use magic mushrooms to help them take that journey. They have been used for centuries by various indigenous cultures around the world, and they continue to be used today in these communities as well as by people from other backgrounds.

Magic mushrooms may not directly lead you to God or make you more spiritual, but they can help you to slow down and enjoy life for what it is. They may also make you feel like you are part of something larger than yourself – whether that be God or not.

8. They Can Help You Get A Fresh Perspective On Life

Magic mushrooms can help you to see the world in a new light, which is why they are often referred to as ‘sunshine’. They provide people with a different perspective of life, and this can be especially useful for people who have experienced some sort of trauma. If you are struggling with grief, loss or addiction it can be hard to find happiness again. Magic mushrooms may help you to feel that everything is going to be okay and that someday you will move on with your life even though your heart has been broken.

9. They Will Make You Appreciate Nature Even More

If you are someone who is looking for a way to be more in touch with nature, magic mushrooms may help. According to the Psychedelic Press UK, some people have said that after consuming hallucinogenic drugs their appreciation for Mother Nature has increased. If you are working hard at being environmentally friendly but still find it difficult to feel connected to nature, magic mushrooms can help you feel better about your lifestyle choices.

10. Magic Mushrooms Can Help You To Grow As A Person

A trip on magic mushrooms doesn’t just change the way you think of life, it changes who you are as a person. People report feeling more compassionate towards others after consuming hallucinogenic drugs. Magic mushrooms have the ability to provide you with a spiritual awakening. They can help you to feel connected with nature, your environment, people and the universe.

11. You Can Use Magic Mushrooms For Meditation

According to Hopkins Medicine, if you are feeling stressed out because of your busy lifestyle it can be hard for you to meditate. A trip on magic mushrooms can help you to calm your mind and teach you how to be at peace with the world around you. If you want to learn more about meditation and its benefits but can’t seem to quiet your busy brain, consuming hallucinogenic drugs may benefit you in this way.

Top 10 Hikes for Magic Mushroom Lovers in Toronto


Hey Shroomfam!

Since Day 1, we’ve had a lot of love and support from all of you in Toronto – and we get a lot of emails with people (both locals and visitors) asking where we think the best hikes in Toronto are to enjoy a magic mushroom trip. Well, we decided to do an investigation. We consulted with senior psychonauts – magic mushroom experts from the city – and asked for their recommendations.

In our opinion, what makes for a great shroom hike are 4 things: location, length, natural beauty and privacy,

They told us, and we’re here to report to you – so without further adieu, here are our Top 10 Hikes for Magic Mushroom Lovers in Toronto!

The List

Rouge Park

is a great place to spend the day, hiking and enjoying nature. It’s located about half hour east of downtown Toronto, and there are several main entrances that lead up into the park itself. There are signs at each entrance showing you where to go next when hiking along different paths inside – however it can get confusing if you’re not paying attention! Some trails will end up leading to other ones without warning, so be sure to bring a map with you or have cell service so you can use Google Maps on your phone while exploring the area. That being said, once you find yourself deep within the forested areas of Rouge National Urban Park, getting lost is part of what makes it so fun!

The trails are all relatively short, easy to moderate hikes that take anywhere from 30 minutes to a couple hours. There aren’t any strenuous areas or very difficult climbs – they’re mostly flat and follow along the main roads through parts of the park as well as over bridges crossing creeks and rivers. The scenery is beautiful in every season: make sure you go on a hike during spring when everything has started blooming again after winter’s dormancy, or visit Rouge Park Trails at fall time for some gorgeous foliage views (and maybe even catch an amazing view of Lake Ontario if you’re lucky). You’ll find plenty of quiet spots throughout your walk where it will almost feel like no one else exists but yourself and nature – perfect for a shroom trip!

Toronto Island

Toronto Island has several hiking trails suitable for all different levels of hikers and fitness abilities. The hikes vary from one hour to full days on the island, so it’s best to know what you’re up for before planning your visit.

The islands feature quiet areas with picnic tables or benches that can be used as a waypoint if you get lost (which is easy to do). The main trail around Centre Island runs through both forested paths and sand dunes along Lake Ontario shoreline making for fun variety throughout the hike! If any part of your route takes longer than anticipated there are public washrooms at either end of the island. To get to the island, take a ferry from the mainland at either Jack Layton Ferry Terminal or Hanlan’s Point Ferry Dock. There are several options of how you can travel, including bus and bicycle rentals on the island itself.

It’s helpful to research your route a little bit before setting out as different areas offer varying degrees of difficulty for hikers – both in distance and terrain type (sand vs forest paths). Some routes such as Gibraltar Point Beach Trail which is located near Centreville Amusement Park, require that all dogs remain leashed due to close proximity with other visitors so be sure to plan accordingly if you bringing furry friends along too!

Secluded spots on Toronto Island are definitely there for the adventurous. Beautiful clearings away form the trails and beaches await intrepid explorers – but we don’t want to spoil the fun by sharing all the details here, so we’ll let you discover it for yourself! 😉

Don Valley Trail

Don Valley Trail is a beautiful hiking trail located in Toronto, Ontario. It is part of the larger system known as ‘The Beltline Trail’ which has over 70 kilometres of trails for you to enjoy all around the city! You can find Don Valley Trail right by Finch subway station, or you could walk from Broadview Subway Station if that’s closer for you. The hike itself starts out at about 100 metres long and goes up to 500 metres making it really easy for everyone to go on whether they are younger kids enjoying their first hikes with parents or older people who want an easier but still fun experience.

There are stairs along some parts so keep this in mind when deciding what shoes would be best! Once walking through these buildings though there aren’t any more stairs, just beautiful trails with lots of trees and little squirrels you might want to feed! The trail will take about an hour to complete depending on how in shape or out of shape you are. You can stop in the middle for a break if needed since there are benches set up along the way too. There is also another great view at around kilometre marker two when looking towards downtown Toronto where all the tall buildings sit so it’s fun taking pictures here too!

If you are looking for a spot to have lunch or just take a break, there is also an area set up called the ‘Don Valley River Park’ which has picnic tables and playground equipment in case anyone wanted to bring their kids along. This park sits right on top of the river so it’s really fun going down little hills with huge jumps if one was brave enough! There’s also bridges made out of wood that sit over this part too where people can walk across and enjoy views from either side.

Bruce Trail

Bruce Trail is a scenic hiking trail that is perfect for hikers who want to explore the beauty of Ontario. This 500 kilometre long trail runs from Queenston Heights in Niagara Falls all the way up to Tobermory on the Bruce Peninsula at Lake Huron. In Toronto, it starts right along Highway 403 and ends after Dundas Peak escarpment through Peel Region near Orangeville . The full length of this hike takes about 12 days but if you are looking for a shorter trip there are plenty within 200 kilometres from downtown Toronto as well!

Hikes ranging between 20-40 kilometers can be done easily by people with different fitness levels, including children over 11 years old. Alongside these easy hikes there are also difficult ones where you will have to climb ladders and use ropes. The Toronto section of the Bruce Trail is full of beautiful scenery including cliffs, waterfalls, woodlands and wildlife such as beavers and deer. When you come across a quiet spot on the trail it’s easy to imagine yourself in another world far away from city noise!

Pine Point Trail

Pine Point Trail is located in Toronto at the Scarborough Bluffs . This trail is only about an hour drive from downtown and offers lots of scenic views. The hike itself is fairly easy with some steep trails, but it’s well worth it for the incredible view you’ll see up top! There are two lookout points that offer different views so make sure to do both hikes if possible. You can also continue past these for a longer walk if desired; there are no loops on this trail, however.

Pine Point Trail has become very popular recently as more people discover its beauty over time which means overcrowding during peak hours (weekends) especially in summertime when school gets out early enough. If you want to avoid crowds go earlier or later outside of these times which is possible even in the wintertime.

This trail can be done as long or short as desired by hikers with different fitness levels. It takes about 40 minutes for one loop around lookout points up top which are at each end of the trail , but there are also smaller lookouts that only take 20-30 minutes round trip from parking lot if preferred.. Scenery:  This hike offers incredible views along cliffs overlooking Lake Ontario. Wildlife such as deer and beavers are often spotted along the way.  Pine Point Trail is located right at Scarborough Bluffs in Toronto; there are lots of grassy fields and parking lot nearby to access trails. This trail offers beautiful views over Lake Ontario, cliffs overlooking water, woodlands with wildlife including beavers and deer as well as amazing rock formations throughout the hike itself .

Kortright Centre Trails

The Kortright Centre Trails are located in northern Ontario at the Kortright Centre for Conservation . There are more than 90 kilometers of trails offering a range of difficulty levels between easy and challenging. The best times to hike here would be spring until fall depending on weather conditions; winter is also doable but expect some frozen lakes and muddy ground.

Hikes ranging from 20-40 kilometres can be done easily by hikers with different fitness levels, including children over 11 years old although if not used to hiking it will take longer due to steepness in certain parts so plan accordingly. Alongside these easy hikes there are also difficult ones where you have climb ladders or use ropes which can make things interesting!

Some of the trails lead to great lookout points, like one that stands at more than 600 meters above sea level. A fantastic way to enjoy the view is by camping overnight up there, or enjoying a picnic on your hike back down (it’s not uncommon for some hikers to take longer than expected and return after dark). The scenery is beautiful and changes with the season; in spring there are vibrant blooms of wildflowers, in summer the trees provide a shade from which to appreciate them more deeply. In fall you will enjoy rich reds and oranges all around while winter offers snow-covered trails that feel like being on another planet!

Finding quiet spots can be difficult due to how busy this place gets but if you have time it’s worth exploring all possibilities until something works out. Once again depending on your fitness level getting lost happens so prepare accordingly by bringing a map or downloading one before going hiking here since cell reception isn’t always reliable. And don’t forget about bug spray for those humid days where mosquitoes seem extra hungry!

Guildwood Park Trails

Guildwood Park Trails is located right on the Scarborough Bluffs, which means its trails are absolutely stunning. The park’s many paths wind through trees and plant life, along creeks and ponds with wildlife to be seen all around you. Whether you want an invigorating hike or a quiet walk by the water, there is no wrong choice here! The trails themselves run from a couple of miles to half a dozen or more, and while they can be quite steep in some places there are plenty of flat sections as well. When you’re done exploring the park itself, head over to nearby Guildwood Village for food and drink afterwards!

Downsview Park Trails

Downsview Park Trails are located in Toronto, Ontario. There are four trails that vary from short and easy to long and strenuous. The longest of them is about 13km which takes roughly five hours with breaks. However if you take your time it will only be a couple of hours at most so they’re not very difficult either way! The shortest of the trails is only about five km long and takes around an hour to complete.

The scenery is great and the ponds are a lot of fun to see. There’s plenty of wildlife in the area too so sometimes you will hear animals or even spot them! Downsview Park has quiet areas for anyone who wants to get away from it all, be alone, relax with friends/family, or enjoy a little trip down shroomery lane with their friends!

There’s also some trails that go through this park, which is only about ten minutes down by car. It takes around an hour to complete but they’re not very difficult either way – just bring lots of water if it’s hot outside! These trails have similar views so don’t worry about missing out on anything when compared to the ones in Downsview Park itself.

Hilton Falls Trail

Hilton Falls Trail is a great place to go hiking in and around Toronto. It is located on the outskirts of town, within driving distance from Mississauga and Burlington. The hike itself can be done as an out-and-back (two cars needed) or with return transportation offered by Hilton Falls Conservation Area’s shuttle service .

The summit trail has two loops that can be combined into one longer loop, but both loops are worth hiking separately. On the east side of the summit trail is a small pond where you can often see turtles basking on logs or fish feeding in shallow water. The west side has great views looking down over Hilton Falls (one of several at this conservation area) and beyond to Hamilton, Burlington, and Oakville.

Hiking into the gorge offers some great views of more waterfalls, but be careful as there are steep dropoffs on the edge of the trail. This part is best left to experienced hikers with good balance and sound judgement. The scenery along this hike changes constantly due to variations in elevation and proximity to different bodies of water at Hilton Falls Conservation Area.

Another great thing about this hike is that it rarely gets busy on the trails and finding spots for quiet reflection or enjoying a picnic lunch are easy to come by. The one downside of hiking here in autumn is that you may not be able to complete the whole trail as some sections can become inaccessible due to fallen leaves covering up parts of the

David Dunlap Observatory Hike

The Observatory was founded in 1935 by the University of Toronto as a centre for astronomical study. In its early years, it housed Canada’s largest telescope and also served as the headquarters for the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. In 1974, it became home to The David Dunlap Observatory telescope. There are a number of hikes available at this site but we opted for one that was approximately 35 minutes long with some steep parts so bring your hiking shoes! Just like all great things in life, the hike is easy enough if you start from certain spots on their property which makes it an ideal place for beginners wanting to take up hiking or who might be out-of-shape.

The hike begins with a little bit of an incline and then levels out for about 20 minutes before it goes up slightly again. It’s smooth going from there to the summit which offers great views of Toronto, including downtown skyscrapers in the distance, cottage country northwards along Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. There are several small trails that branch off from the main one so keep your eyes peeled for those. We found a couple of secluded spots where we could eat our lunch and take in some sun.

The Observatory is open to public every day, including holidays year-round but hours vary depending on season. They offer guided tours which can be booked online or visitors are welcome to wander around the grounds on their own. Admission is free but a donation of $15/adult and $12/senior or student, as well as a suggested donation of $20 for groups larger than 20 people are appreciated.

Final Thoughts

There are so many beautiful natural hikes around Toronto for you and your loved ones to explore on a shroom trip! We couldn’t possibly list them all in one article. Did we get your favourite hike in here? Do you have others to recommend? Let us know in the comments, and we’ll see you next time!

The Incredible Life & Times of Terence McKenna


Praised by hundreds of thousands of zealous soul-seekers worldwide, Terence McKenna’s accounts of his experiences with psychedelic substances have gifted us with astounding glimpses into the otherworldly. His lyrical intellect and learned interests included shamanism, renaissance alchemy, archeology, Jungian psychology, and technology. This made him a polymath like the psychedelic scene had never seen. May this brief portrayal of his existence be a homage to the knowledge he transmitted to our curious minds and the freedom to experiment he instilled in our wandering souls.

Early Life

Terence was born to a mother of Welsh heritage and father of Irish heritage on November 16, 1946 in Paonia, Colorado. (Interestingly, LSD was first synthesized on this exact day eight years earlier.) He was a curious child who nurtured many esoteric interests from a young age. When he was ten years old, he would blaze through literature such as Carl Jung’s Psychology and Alchemy in breaks from building his collection of butterflies and moths. Little did he know that, decades later, he would be using the same butterfly net during his historic adventures to the Amazon rainforest in search of psychedelic substances.

Terence’s unique verbiage was probably the deed of his grandfather, Joseph Kemp, who passed on when Terence was 13. As his brother Dennis notes, Kemp loved playing with language and would often invent alien-sounding vocabulary to describe anything from food to weather. It’s quite possible that his grandpa was one of Terence’s early idols and that he felt encouraged by Kemp to develop his intellect, curiosity, and ability of self-expression.

Dennis and Terence were inseparable as kids, with a caveat that Terence was something of a mean child. In his memoir, The Brotherhood of the Screaming Abyss, Dennis recollects how his brother used to mercilessly tickle him, to the point of torment, as well as how Terence would tease classmates. Dennis still idolized him and followed his “cooler” older brother in whatever he was up to.

Introduction to Psychedelics

Terence started experimenting with psychedelics as a teenager, introduced to the world of mind-altering substances by the works of Aldous Huxley and other legendary science fiction writers. As he himself once stated: “I regard science fiction as the entry drug into the psychedelic world.” When he was 17, he would grind up Heavenly Blue morning glory seeds and enjoy their mild trips while wandering among the Joshua trees in Southern California, where he lived at the time. He also took to smoking marijuana and claimed that it would henceforth be the connecting substance to his entire creative opus.

“If you don’t smoke cannabis, you may spend your evening balancing your checking account. If you do smoke cannabis, you may spend your evening contemplating the causes of the Greek Renaissance” – Terence McKenna

However, his true induction into transethereal hyperspace took place when he dropped acid for the first time at the age of 19. Under the effect of what he would later popularize as a “heroic dose” of the purest LSD he could find, young Terence went through a complete dissolution of the boundaries of reality. He would keep enjoying LSD for a long time to come; however, learning about the phantasmagoric visions of Huxley’s and Ellis’s worlds, he wanted a more potent visionary experience.

He got it with DMT. That same year, as anthropologist Graham St. John explains, Terence experienced the “holy grail” of mind-bending substances, and it transformed him entirely. Terence was utterly dumbfounded by the instantaneous replacement of reality with “titanic, alien, and off-planet motifs” and the discovery of strange entities existing in these alternate worlds. Describing beings he witnessed in these early trips, he famously commented:

These self-transforming machine elf creatures were speaking in a colored language which condensed into rotating machines that were like Fabergé eggs but crafted out of luminescent superconducting ceramics and liquid crystal gels.

Exploration of Shamanism

Inspired by these otherworldly experiences, Terence started getting curious about shamanism. Eventually, this line of research would bring him to the Amazon, but not before a short hiatus on the other side of the globe. Spurred by countercultural icon Timothy Leary (who would later call Terence “the Timothy Leary of the 90’s”) and his famous freedom call that went “Turn on, tune in, drop out”, young Terence apparently decided to take the “drop out” bit to heart. So he headed to Nepal to study the Tibetan language, culture, and shamanism and, of course, become an international hashish smuggler. A person’s gotta make a living somehow, right?

This excursion into the drug trafficking waters went sour when a shipment headed to America got intercepted by US Customs. Terence understood it was time to call it quits and spent his next life chapter traveling throughout Southeast Asia, stopping for a while in Indonesia to collect butterflies professionally, and in Japan to teach English. Ultimately, though, he would head back to Berkeley to continue studying biology. However, this period of stability turned out to be a brief one. His mother’s passing in 1971 would once again usher in a big transition.

At this point, Dennis and Terence decided that the DMT experience was to be the most significant discovery of their lives, and that there should be no more important cause to dedicate themselves to than understanding and describing this strange, potent molecule. They researched and discovered an indigenous settlement in Southern Colombia that was using oo-koo-he, a DMT-containing sap taken from virola trees and prepared for oral ingestion. Already aware of the various DMT-snuffing customs in the Amazon region, they correctly assumed that an oral preparation would allow them more time in the nth dimensions of hyperspace, and so, in 1971, alongside three friends, they set out for an expedition to South America.

Upon arriving in La Chorrera, the mission village that was home to the Witoto Indians, the oo-koo-he using settlement, the company was surprised to discover that the pastures there were brimming with a different psychedelic: psilocybin mushrooms. At first, the McKennas thought eating them would provide an interesting pastime until the moment seemed right to inquire about oo-koo-he and ayahuasca. However, this haphazard discovery would soon prove to be a pivotal, serendipitous side-purpose of their voyage.

True Hallucinations

“Like most Westerners, I believed that magic was a phenomenon of the naive and the primitive, that science could provide an explanation for the workings of the world. In that position of intellectual naiveté, I encountered psilocybin mushrooms for the first time, at San Augustine in the Alto Magdalena of southern Colombia. Later and not far away, in Florencia, I also encountered and used visionary brews made from Banisteriopsis vines, the yage or ayahuasca of 1960s underground legend.” – Terence McKenna, True Hallucinations

Published in 1989, True Hallucinations tells the story of Terence McKenna, his brother Dennis, and a small band of their friends, heading to the Amazon rainforest in search of the great mystery.
They ended up making these mushrooms a regular element of their sustenance. As Dennis describes it, “The food we brought was inadequate, and you can make quite a nice bowl of soup or an omelette with psilocybin mushrooms.” Out of this constant state of altered consciousness, they would get many “funny ideas”, a string of which grew into what would thenceforth be known as the “La Chorrera Experiment”.

This experiment came to Dennis as a telepathic download from the intelligent direction of “the Teacher, the mushroom, or whatever it was”. Under his instructions, the members of the group were supposed to attempt “creating, and then fixing, the mercury of [their] own consciousness, fused with the four-dimensionally transformed psilocybin-DNA complex of a living mushroom”. Basically, the goal was to achieve a superconductive state that would allow for creation of something like a symbiosis between their human DNA, the tryptamines in the ayahuasca vine, and the psilocybin in the mushrooms. You can read an in-depth account of the experiment and the events leading up to it in Terence McKenna’s book True Hallucinations and Dennis’s book The Brotherhood of the Screaming Abyss.

The conclusion of the experiment can be summarized neatly in the following words of Terence:

Our destiny was apparently to be the human atoms critical to the transformation of Homo sapiens into galaxy-roving bodhisattvas, the culmination and quintessence of the highest aspirations of star-coveting humanity.

Later Life and Works

After this experience, Terence was ready to fully unfold as the visionary, prophetic advocate of psychedelic substances and altered states of consciousness we remember and celebrate him as. After finishing his studies, he co-authored two books with Dennis and then three more after their paths separated. He was published in various magazines and papers and went on many tours as a modern-day bard of the ineffable, retelling his awe of the wild worlds he had witnessed and continued witnessing. He was welcomed far and wide, regaling masses who absorbed every colorful word of his vivid, trance-like discourse. You can listen to many of these talks here.

Psychedelics are illegal not because a loving government is concerned that you may jump out of a third story window. Psychedelics are illegal because they dissolve opinion structures and culturally laid down models of behavior and information processing. They open you up to the possibility that everything you know is wrong – Terence McKenna
Eventually, this legendary human got stricken with one of the most lethal and least operable cancers in existence. A walnut-sized lump grew right inside his frontal cortex, and the prognosis was swift departure. As terrifying as the prospect of imminent death can be for many of us, Terence took it as well as humanly possible. With all his experience exploring alternate worlds normally unavailable to the majority of 3D-dwelling humans, he was quite prepared to cross over forever—in his own words: “Taking shamanic drugs and spending your life studying esoteric philosophy is basically a meditation on death”. Spring of the year 2000 heralded his last days, which he spent in devotion to Buddhist practices and quiet reflection on what the future would bring to humanity, in the company of his last partner, Christy Silness, at their peaceful, reclusive hideaway in Hawaii.

Terence brought us an infinite wealth of information from his journeys in this, and other, existences. Not a single psychonaut after him would come close to the phantasmagorical way he would weave stories to bring us closer to the unfathomable dimensions of reality. He made them describable, and he never did it with a Messianic undertone—his messages were always clearly idiosyncratic and inviting to discussion and attestation. As he would humbly state, close to his demise: “My real function for people was permission. Essentially what I existed for was to say, ‘Go ahead, you’ll live through it, get loaded, you don’t have to be afraid.” He will be forever treasured for his contributions to the expansion of consciousness of the souls he touched with his account of the lore of the beyond.

You are a divine being. You matter, you count. You come from realms of unimaginable power and light, and you will return to those realms – Terence McKenna

Psychedelic Stocks: A Primer for Canadians


So, for some reason, some of the questions that we receive a lot are related to investing in the psychedelic industry. Questions like:

Can I buy Shroom Bros stock?
What are the top psilocybin companies to watch?
What psilocybin stocks should I buy?
Can I invest in psychedelic companies?
What are the top shroom stocks?

That kind of thing. So, here’s the truth of it: we are not professional investors. We have no idea how to predict whether a stock will go up, down or sideways, and are in no way qualified to give anyone else investment advice. Nothing in this article should be looked at as an endorsement of any specific stocks.

However, we did want to try and help answer some of your questions. So, what we’ve done is scraped through Canadian public stock exchanges that are involved in the psychedelic wellness space. This list is not necessarily exhaustive – we may have missed one or two while compiling it, and new companies are popping up all the time!

We’ve then written small profiles on each of these companies, and arranged them alphabetically below with links to their websites, and convenient shorthand for their stock tickers, so if you’re interested in looking at how their stock is performing, you can easily look it up! (Just copy the part that says “CSE:AION” into your search engine, and it should pop right up.)


So, if you’re interested in dipping your feet into the psychedelic investment space, this is as good a place as any to start! So, here’s the list:

The List

Aion Therapeutic (CSE:AION)

In addition to its recent move into the psychedelics arena, Aion Therapeutic operates in the cannabis industry with a licensed production line in Canada.

As far as its psychedelics business goes, the company’s lead, Dr. Stephen D. Barnhill, has said Aion is pursuing novel formulations of various natural compounds, including psilocybin and fungi.


Algernon Pharmaceuticals (CSE:AGN,OTCQB:AGNPF)

Algernon Pharmaceuticals is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company with Phase 2 clinical studies being conducted in the disease areas of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic cough and COVID-19.

In early 2021, Algernon launched a clinical research program for stroke treatment focused on AP-188 (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine or DMT). DMT is a psychedelic compound that is part of the tryptamine family, which includes psilocybin and psilocin. The company plans to begin a clinical trial as soon as possible.



Originally a cannabis-focused company, Allied began shifting its focus to psilocybin in early 2021. Allied is fully integrated across the value chain, and brings a variety of psilocybin and cannabis formulations to the health and wellness market. The company’s products target the treatment of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).


ATAI Life Sciences (NASDAQ:ATAI)

ATAI Life Sciences is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing novel drugs, including psychedelics, to treat various mental health diseases such as addiction, depression, anxiety, and PTSD. ATAI recently raised US$225 million in a NASDAQ initial public offering.


Awakn Life Sciences (NEO:AWKN,OTC Pink:AWKNF)

Bitoech company Awakn Life Sciences has clinical operations geared at researching, developing and delivering psychedelic medicine to treat addiction. It is the only company in the world providing evidence-backed ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for alcohol use addiction through its near-term ketamine for reduction of alcoholic relapse protocol.

The company recently announced its undertaking a clinical research program designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ketamine-assisted psychotherapy against multiple addictions.


BetterLife Pharma (CSE:BETR,OTCQB:BETRF)

BetterLife Pharma is an emerging biotechnology company working to develop and commercialize psychedelic products for the treatment of mental disorders in Canada, the US, Australia and the European Union. The company is also developing drug-delivery platform technologies targeting virus infections, such as the coronavirus disease and human papillomavirus, as well as specific types of cancer.


Better Plant Sciences (CSE:PLNT,OTCQB:VEGGF)

This wellness firm has a substantial investment in the psychedelics market thanks to a majority ownership stake in NeonMind Biosciences, previously known as Flourish Mushroom Labs. According to its parent company, NeonMind will carry out clinical trials on the therapeutic effects of psilocybin.

NeonMind plans to eventually launch branded products such as mushroom-infused items designed to “support immune, cognitive, memory and other brain functions.”


Braxia Scientific (CSE:BRAX,OTC Pink:SHRMF)

Braxia Scientific is developing ketamine and psilocybin derivatives and other psychedelic products from its intellectual property (IP) development platform. Additionally, through its wholly owned subsidiary, the Canadian Rapid Treatment Center of Excellence, the company owns and operates multidisciplinary community-based clinics providing rapid-onset treatment for mental health disorders. These clinics are located in Mississauga, Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal.

Braxia Scientific recently launched the Braxia Institute, a training center focused on advancing psychiatric clinical practices and health services, including ketamine and psychedelic treatment therapy for patients with treatment-resistant depression and other mental health disorders.


Bright Minds Biosciences (CSE:DRUG,OTCQB:BMBIF)

Bright Minds Biosciences is a pre-clinical company developing a portfolio of next-generation serotonin agonists designed to treat neuropsychiatry disorders, epilepsy and pain. The company believes its drugs extenuate the therapeutic aspects of psychedelic and other serotonergic compounds while minimizing their side effects, creating superior drugs to first-generation compounds, such as psilocybin.

The company has applied for a listing on the NASDAQ.


Captiva Verde Wellness (CSE:PWR)

This cannabis and hemp company secured an entry point in the psychedelics space by forming a partnership with a Mexican company capable of distributing pharmaceutical and wellness products, including psychoactive and non-psychoactive drugs.


Clearmind Medicine (CSE:CMND)

This biotech company develops IP-protected novel psychedelic medicines aimed at addressing underserved mental health problems, including binge behavior and alcohol use disorder.

Clearmind Medicine has two groups of patents. The first, which relates to binge behavior regulators, has been granted in the US, Europe, China and India, with divisional applications pending in Europe and the US; the second, which relates to alcoholic beverage substitutes, has been approved for a European patent, with applications pending in the US, China and India.


Codebase Ventures (CSE:CODE,OTCQB:BKLLF)

Codebase Ventures is an investment firm offering investors a diverse portfolio of opportunities, including a direct stake in Red Light Holland, a publicly traded entity involved in the psychedelics market through its subsidiary Titan Shrooms & Psychedelics.



Focused on psilocybin research, COMPASS Pathways has quickly become the center of attention for psychedelics industry watchers. And thanks to a monumental public offering debut, it has attracted interested observers outside the psychedelics arena as well.

The company has been investigating the use of psychedelic compounds to treat depression. In 2018, COMPASS obtained a critical US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakthrough therapy designation.


Core One Labs (CSE:COOL,OTC Pink:CLABD)

Core One Labs is looking into the development of psychedelic medicines for a front-facing market.

Thin-film oral strips are one of the potentially novel delivery methods the firm will seek to employ. The company is looking to develop IP related to the psychedelic drug space.



Pharmaceutical company Creso Pharma develops and produces a wide variety of cannabis- and hemp-derived therapeutic, nutraceutical and lifestyle products. The company has worldwide rights for several proprietary drug-delivery technologies that enhance the bioavailability and absorption of cannabinoids.

The company recently waded into the psychedelics sector through the acquisition of Halucenex Life Sciences, and it has a definitive agreement with Red Light Holland to merge, creating the HighBrid Lab.


CURE Pharmaceutical Holding (OTCQB:CURR)

CURE Pharmaceutical Holding is the developer of CUREform, a patented drug-delivery platform that has led to a number of immediate- and controlled-release drug-delivery vehicles for a wide range of active ingredients designed to improve drug efficacy and safety.

The company has a 25,000 square foot manufacturing facility, and recently commenced development of a psychedelics-based pharmaceutical clinical pipeline to deliver a number of psychedelic compounds.



This life science company is pursuing the development of psychedelic drugs through detailed clinical trials meant to test the efficacy of its candidates.

After going public in Canada, Cybin has moved forward with acquisition deals to expand its market presence in the psychedelics space at large.



Delic Holdings provides information on the psychedelic wellness industry and investment. The company’s product offerings include a blog, podcast, e-commerce store and periodic events.


EGF Theramed Health (CSE:TMED,OTC Pink:EVAHF)

EGF Theramed Health is a medical technology company working on the development of its psychedelics presence. Recently, the company moved forward with a deal to integrate a “seedbank” company holding LSA, an alternative substance to LSD, and other compounds.


Ehave (OTC Pink:EHVVF)

This firm specializes in data solutions for the health space. Ehave is a digital therapeutics firm with a home delivery platform for patients prescribed with ketamine infusions.

Ehave has moved forward with digital solution opportunities for the development of the psychedelics industry, as detailed in a recent shareholder letter.


Empower Clinics (CSE:CBDT,OTC Pink:EPWCF)

This company operates as a healthcare firm involved in various aspects of medical care for patients through clinical and digital solutions.

Empower Clinics got access to the psychedelics space by way of a subsidiary launched to investigate the use of psilocybin for anxiety, depression, PTSD and addiction.


Entheon Biomedical (CSE:ENBI,OTCQB:ENTBF)

Entheon Biomedical is a biotech company developing a portfolio of safe and effective psychedelic medicines to treat addiction and substance use disorders. The company’s subsidiary HaluGen Life Sciences has developed a psychedelics genetic test kit available for sale in Canada and the US.

The psychedelics genetic test kit analyzes a series of relevant DNA biomarkers along with pre-screening mental health surveys to provide insights into individuals’ risk and potential for adverse reactions with the use of hallucinogenic drugs.


Enveric Biosciences (NASDAQ:ENVB) 

Enveric Biosciences’ primary focus until fairly recently was developing novel cannabinoid medicines to improve quality of life for cancer patients adversely affected by the side effects of cancer treatments.

In May 2021, the company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire MagicMed Industries, which has been working to create a library of novel derivative psychedelic molecules such as psilocybin and DMT. The acquisition will enable Enveric to expand its portfolio to include psychedelic-derived molecules.


Field Trip Health (TSX:FTRP,NASDAQ:FTRP)

Field Trip Health is trying to encompass the entire new age psychedelics experience. Its primary business is the development of its clinic network across North America. The company opened its first ketamine clinic in Toronto while expanding into the US market via locations in New York and Los Angeles.

In addition to the clinics, Field Trip holds separate divisions, including one that is looking into the research aspect of psychedelic compounds. The company also launched an official app to accompany its treatments, offering patients activities like meditation techniques to go alongside psychedelics.


Filament Health (NEO:FH)

Filament Health is focused on developing natural psychedelic drug discovery and extraction technology to address the world’s mental health problems.

Filament plans to produce psychedelic extracts in-house at its facility in Metro Vancouver, and aims to commence the first ever FDA-approved natural psilocybin clinical trials in Q3 2021.



GH Research is developing novel and proprietary 5-MeO-DMT therapies for patients with treatment-resistant depression. The company’s portfolio includes GH001, a proprietary inhalable 5-MeO-DMT product candidate, and GH002, a proprietary injectable 5-MeO-DMT product candidate.

The clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company has completed a Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trial for its GH001 via inhalation product. GH001 is currently being investigated in the Phase 2 part of an ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial in patients with treatment-resistant depression.


Global Trac Solutions (OTC Pink:PSYC)

This digital media company has dedicated itself to the psychedelics space through its website Psychedelic Spotlight, where it showcases some of the most recent developments in the psychedelics industry.


Goodness Growth Holdings (CSE:GDNS,OTCQX:GDNSF)

Physician-led Goodness Growth Holdings’ operations primarily consist of its multi-state cannabis company subsidiary, Vireo Health, and its science and IP incubator, Resurgent Biosciences.

In June 2021, the company filed for a US patent to create an expansive suite of virtual reality applications that can be used by practitioners during psychedelics-based therapies.


Graph Blockchain (CSE:GBLC)

After embarking on a search for alternative business models that could incorporate and support its blockchain technology, Graph Blockchain determined it would acquire Shroom Street for C$1 million.

The purchase was done in an attempt to integrate product-tracking blockchain technology tools into the emerging psychedelics space.



Greenbrook TMS operates 129 treatment centers and is a leading provider of transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy, an FDA-cleared, non-invasive therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other mental health disorders.

In July, the company partnered with Cybin to establish Mental Health Centers of Excellence for the purpose of facilitating research and development of innovative psychedelic compound-based therapeutics for patients suffering from depression.


Havn Life Sciences (CSE:HAVN,OTC Pink:HAVLF)

Havn Life Sciences is a newcomer to the psychedelics industry, boasting an impressive lineup of advisors from the Canadian cannabis space. Among these is Vic Neufeld, who used to run Aphria (NASDAQ:APHA,TSX:APHA). Rick Brar, former CEO of Zenabis Global, is another ex-cannabis executive who is on the roster advising the company.

The company holds a Section 56 exemption from Health Canada, meaning it can research and develop psilocybin for scientific use. Havn sells itself to investors as a company investigating psychoactive compounds to develop natural health products.


Hollister Biosciences (CSE:HOLL,OTC Pink:HSTRF)

As a way to pursue exposure to the psychedelic arena, this cannabis player confirmed an acquisition deal worth C$1.2 million for AlphaMind Brands, which, according to the public company, will develop a “portfolio of certified legal mushroom-based natural health products.”

Carl Saling, founder and CEO of Hollister, has called the acquisition a promising opportunity that could complement its cannabis brand business.


KetamineOne Capital (NEO:MEDI,OTC Pink:KONEF)

KetamineOne Capital has a network of 16 mental health clinics across North America. KGK Science, the company’s contract research division, has a 23 year clinical research history and extensive experience in pharmaceuticals, cannabis and the emerging psychedelic medicine industries.

KGK recently applied to Health Canada for a controlled drugs and substances dealer’s licence under Canada’s Narcotic Control Regulations.


Levitee Labs (CSE:LVT,OTC Pink:LVTTF)

Levitee Labs describes itself as an emerging multidisciplinary integrative wellness company that is redefining mental healthcare through an approach that involves evidence-based alternative medicines and novel psychedelic therapies.

The company intends to be the world’s first psychedelic company with significant revenue and cash flow by the end of 2021.


Lobe Sciences (CSE:LOBE,OTC Pink:GTSIF)

This Vancouver-based company has a focus on the development of products and technologies in the emerging psychedelics industry based on high-end medical research.

Its current flagship preclinical study is a collaboration with the University of Miami. It is investigating the treatment of mild traumatic brain injuries/concussions with PTSD using psilocybin and N-Acetylcysteine.


M2Bio Sciences (OTC Pink:WUHN)

Through its wholly owned subsidiary MJ MedTech, nutraceutical biotech firm M2Bio Sciences is focused on plant-based cannabinoids and psilocybin medical research. The company is developing and commercializing a range of CBD and mushroom-based products under the Dr. AnnaRx, Medspresso, Liviana and Handcrafted Delights brands.

M2Bio Sciences’ research and clinical trials with psilocybin are aimed at developing novel therapies for patients who suffer from alcohol addiction, mental illness and cardiovascular diseases.



Mind Cure Health brings together a variety of medical expertise to pursue the advancement of psychedelics as an active mental health treatment option for patients.

As part of its business, the company wants to develop products with the ability to help enhance mental health and wellness. In addition to its research efforts, it offers a variety of consumer products based on organic mushroom nootropics.


Mind Medicine (MindMed) (NASDAQ:MNMD,NEO:MMED)

MindMed became the first psychedelics firm to make its public debut on Toronto’s NEO Exchange in 2020, earning the attention of investors as part of the new crop of psychedelics stocks to watch.

The company is investigating the use of its 18-MC psychedelic drug candidate as an aid for battling opioid dependency. MindMed’s most significant backers are former Canopy Growth (NYSE:CGC,TSX:WEED) CEO Bruce Linton and notorious Dragon’s Den and Shark Tank investor Kevin O’Leary.



This drug development company is pursuing the creation of next-generation “psilocybin-inspired” medicine for unmet medical needs from neurological and psychiatric disorders. Mindset Pharma wants to develop a library of psychedelics-related IP to tackle neuropsychiatric disorders.


Mydecine Innovations Group (OTC Pink:MYCOF,NEO:MYCO)

Formerly known as NewLeaf Brands, Mydecine Innovations Group is advancing new medicine methods, including natural health products. The previous entity acquired Colorado-based Mydecine Group for C$1.2 million. The fungi acquisition was led by Robert Roscow, who served as the director of research with Ebbu, a cannabinoid research company bought by Canadian giant Canopy Growth.

The company holds a portfolio dedicated to the development of its psychedelics business, with three ventures so far: Mydecine Health Sciences, Mindleap Health and NeuroPharm.


New Wave Holdings (CSE:SPOR,OTC Pink:TRMNF)

Investment firm New Wave Holdings offers shareholders an advanced strategy into three segments of the psychedelics space: a recreational product line, a passive cosmetic lineup and the possibility for further high-end medical research-grade items.

New Wave touts a production presence in Jamaica as the core of its psychedelics-based businesses.


NeonMind Biosciences (CSE:NEON,OTCQB:NMDBF)

NeonMind Biosciences is a company working with psychedelic compounds for the development of legal products. The company has set a target of treating obesity and related illnesses through its psychedelic products in a preclinical trial.


Nova Mentis Life Science (CSE:NOVA,OTCQB:NMLSF)

Formerly known as cannabis operator Liberty Leaf Holdings, this company is exploring the medical benefits of psilocybin. The psychedelics stock has taken steps to solidify its drug development program and holds two subsidiaries: NovaMentis Biotech and Pilz BioScience.


Novamind (CSE:NM,OTC Pink:NVMDF)

Novamind is focusing on ketamine-assisted psychotherapy through clinics available to patients. The company also plans to approach in-depth research on psychedelic compounds to find more applications that are practical for patient use.

The company has longtime cannabis executive Chuck Rifici, who co-founded Canopy Growth, as a member of its board of directors.



Numinus pitches itself to investors as a healthcare firm exploring the compelling new segments of available health treatments to patients. Thanks to specific licensing, the company is capable of operating in the cannabis and psychedelics industries.

Through its Numinus Wellness division, the public company can research the development of psychedelic therapies for treatments related to physical, mental and emotional health.


Nutritional High International (CSE:EAT,OTC Pink:SPLIF)

This primarily cannabis operation acquired an entry into the psychedelics business when it purchased an entity named Psychedelic Science.

The psychedelics division is researching psychedelic cacti strains in the treatment of weight loss, insomnia, anxiety and pain.


Pharmadrug (CSE:PHR)

Pharmadrug is an international medical company focused on its presence in the European market, thanks to an ownership stake in Pharmadrug GmbH, a German medical cannabis distributor.

The company has gained psychedelics exposure thanks to the key acquisition of Super Smart, a Netherlands-based retailer looking into the legal availability of magic mushrooms in the country.


PharmaTher Holdings (CSE:PHRM,OTCQB:PHRRF)

This company plans to focus on ketamine as its psychedelic drug of choice for research potential. PharmaTher wants to develop new treatments for Parkinson’s disease, depression and general pain.


PsyBio Therapeutics (TSXV:PSYB,OTCQB:PSYBF)

Through the global exclusive rights to a proprietary platform technology, PysBio Therapeutics is developing novel formulations of psychoactive medications produced naturally in fungi and plants for the treatment of mental health challenges and other disorders.

In July 2021, PsyBio added to its IP portfolio with the filing of a new patent application with the US Patent and Trademark Office for psilocybin and norbaeocystin compositions. PsyBio’s IP portfolio now includes five pending provisional patent applications and one pending non-provisional patent application.


Psyched Wellness (CSE:PSYC,OTCQB:PSYCF)

Psyched Wellness is a health supplements company looking to offer extracted natural oil products.

Besides its product offerings, the company is engaged in various research efforts to look at the medical uses of its products.


Psyence Group (CSE:PSYG)

Psyence Group jumped into the psychedelics listing rush and touts itself as a science-led company with a drug development program in place, including a psilocybin cultivation facility based in Lesotho.



Focused on the health and wellness markets, Optimi Health intends to cultivate, extract, process and distribute functional mushroom products at its two facilities nearing completion in British Columbia.

The company has received a research exemption under Health Canada’s Food and Drugs Act and Regulations for the use of psilocybin and psilocin for scientific purposes via its wholly owned subsidiary Optimi Labs. Optimi has also applied for a Health Canada dealer’s license.


Red Light Holland (CSE:TRIP)

This firm is focused on a business model of producing and distributing legally sanctioned recreational psilocybin truffles in the Netherlands. The public listing represents a business evolution for the firm as it pursues higher-stakes capital from the market, Chairman and CEO Todd Shapiro said in a statement.

This firm has financial backing from publicly traded investment firm Codebase Ventures.


Revive Therapeutics (CSE:RVV,OTCQB:RVVTF)

Revive Therapeutics bought its way into the promising psychedelic space thanks to a C$2.75 million acquisition agreement with Psilocin Pharma, which has successfully developed unique product formulations for the psilocybin agent.

In the wake of the acquisition deal being announced, Michael Frank, CEO of the public firm, said the deal would add to his company’s “clinical initiatives in liver disease and inflammation.”


Roadman Investments (TSXV:LITT)

In early 2020, this venture capital investment firm confirmed an entry into the psychedelics space with a joint venture alongside Psychedelic Insights.

The public firm committed to a US$500,000 injection to kickstart an operation agenda for the joint venture. The goal of this partnership is to create a line of clinics capable of offering guided therapies utilizing the much-promoted psilocybin.


Seelos Therapeutics (NASDAQ:SEEL)

This conventional biopharmaceutical company earned a spot on this psychedelics stocks list thanks to its validating research involving ketamine therapies.

In 2019, the company was awarded fast-track designation from the FDA for SLS-002, a therapy for acute suicidal ideation and behavior in patients with major depressive disorder.



This company is focused on the biopharmaceutical development process for psilocybin and other psychedelic compounds.

Silo Wellness has indicated it plans to follow an established drug development model, including the possibility of utilizing FDA designations meant to help the process for psychedelic drugs.


Tryp Therapeutics (CSE:TRYP,OTQQB:TRYPF)

This company is engaged in the medical investigation of psychedelic compounds for the treatment of rare diseases and conditions with unmet medical treatments.

Tryp Therapeutics is currently researching the use of psilocybin in the treatment of fibromyalgia through its TRP-8802 drug candidate, among other studies with psilocybin.


Wesana Health Holdings (CSE:WESA,OTCQB:WSNAF)

Wesana Health Holdings is developing evidence-based formulations and protocols, including psilocybin-based therapies for neurological, psychological and mental health ailments.

In addition to its extensive clinical research and academic partnerships, the company recently signed a definitive agreement to acquire Psychedelitech (PsyTech). Through the acquisition, Wesana will benefit from PsyTech’s clinical software-as-a-service platform Tovana Solutions, as well as Tovana Clinics, its integrated mental health practice network, and PsyTech Connect, the industry’s largest professional psychedelics practitioner community.

Well, that does it for the list! I hope it was helpful; it was a lot of work compiling this list, but fun researching all the companies! Did we miss any? Do you have any particular favourites from the list? Let us know! As always, your feedback means the world to us!

Canadian Lawmakers Have New Framework for Regulating Psilocybin


Exciting news for all of those interested in seeing Canada move forward with progressive initiatives to legalize and regulate psilocybin therapy for patients in the country. The Canadian Psychedelic Association (CPA) formally submitted a draft framework to Health Canada last Wednesday, which outlines their professional opinions on how psilocybin-assisted therapy should be regulated.

The draft is a 182-page-long document, called a “Memorandum of Regulatory Approval”, or “MORA”, draws from several different sources: the Canadian Cannabis Act, Canada’s Cannabis Regulations, Narcotic Control Regulations, the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, the Cannabis Exemption to the Food and Drug Act, and the Food and Drug Regulations. Much inspiration was also taken from the successful ballot effort, Measure 109 – which famously won legalization for medical psilocybin in the state of Oregon.

There is also a letter attached to the document addressed to the Canadian Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu which provides an overview of the contents, and a summary of the CPA’s position of advocacy for the use of psychedelics in Canadian Health Care

Who is the Canadian Psychedelic Association

The Canadian Psychedelic Association is an organization that grew from a group of individuals active in the psychedelic community in Vancouver, as well as medical and therapeutic professionals who believe based on their own experiences and research in the healing power of psychedelics.

They officially became a Canadian non-profit organization in late 2019, and since that time have been dedicated to furthering advocacy for psychedelic medicine in Canada. We wanted to know a little bit more about who exactly is sitting on that board, and did some research. We’ve compiled profiles of the board members here:

Cory Firth, Executive Director
As a plant medicine advocate for 15 years, Cory is passionate about supporting the CPA in its efforts to advance the decriminalization and legalization movement in Canada. He joins the CPA in pursuit of expanding alliances with local, national and international partners with the intention to unite the psychedelic community nationwide and to nurture a foundation for safe, ethical and responsible use of plant medicines in Canada.

Ian Michael Hebert, Founding Member
Ian-Michael Hébert is a retreat center designer and psychotherapist. He holds a BA in design and development, and an MA in counseling psychology and community mental health. He had served on numerous non-profit boards, and worked for many institutions committed to the development of humanity’s potential.

Richard Kay, Founding Member
Co- Founder of The Sentinel Retreat & Wellness Centre. Founding member of The Canadian Psychedelic Association. Psychedelic Practitioner. Integration Coach. Producer of Psychedelic Practitioner Training. Richard is dedicating this 3rd chapter of his life to create avenues for people and communities to realize their full potential by using cutting edge procedures and technologies.

Dr. Pamela Kryskow, Founding Member
Dr. Pamela Kryskow is a medical doctor in Vancouver, British Columbia. Her training includes Family Medicine, Rural Emergency Medicine, Chronic pain, Functional Medicine and Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy. She is currently working with colleagues on research related to Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy, Psychedelic Microdosing, MDMA for Chronic Pain, Psilocybin, and Psychedelic therapy.

Gillian Maxwell, Founding Member
Based in British Columbia, Canada, Gillian brings her experience in harm reduction and drug policy reform, along with a wide and diverse network of colleagues and associates, who value her knowledge and wisdom. She co-founded the Canadian Drug Policy Coalition (CDPC), served on the board of directors of MAPS Canada for over 10 years, has spoken at conferences nationally and internationally. In 2012, Gillian received Queen Elizabeth II, Diamond Jubilee Medal, for community service in introducing harm reduction to Vancouver and successfully advocating for INSITE, North America’s first supervised injection site, that opened there in 2003
Trevor Millar, Founding Member
Trevor Millar is a social-entrepreneur who has played a role in advancing the psychedelic movement for nearly a decade. He has the unique perspective of having operated a business where he legally administered psychedelics to over 200 people within Canada, mostly for substance use disorder. He is a board member and co-founder of the Canadian Psychedelic Association and from 2018 to 2021 was on the board of directors for the Multidisciplinary Association of Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) Canada, where he acted as Chair of the Board for over two years.

Salimeh Tabrizi, Founding Member
Salimeh Tabrizi, M.Ed is a clinical counsellor, success coach, intuitive energy worker and plant medicine advocate who supports individuals in and out of ceremonies. As the founder of the Cannabis Hemp Conference and Expo, the largest and most comprehensive Cannabis conference in Canada, and a founding member of the Canadian Psychedelic Association, she is inspired by the co-evolutionary process between humans and Entheogenic plants such as Cannabis, Ayahuasca, Psilocybin and San Pedro. She feels grateful to be part of the collective as humanity faces a pivotal point of ascension and has a chance and choice to step into complete self-healing, empowerment and responsibility for Earth stewardship and protection.

Steve Rio, Board Member
Steve is a social impact entrepreneur, psychedelic guide, and musician based in British Columbia, Canada. Steve is Co-Founder and Founder of multiple ventures including Nature of Work, a work-wellness program, Humkala Institute, focused on retreats and research based on psychedelics, breathwork, meditation, and somatic modalities, and NOW with Steve Rio, a podcast that explores what it means to live a good life. Steve’s greatest hope is that all humans can realize their full potential in order to expand global consciousness, and transform the world.

Sonia Stringer, Board Member
Sonia Stringer is a business / life coach and professional speaker who has been involved in transformational work for over 25 years. She started her career working with peak performance expert Anthony Robbins, before launching a own coaching/training company that serves 500,000+ people around the world. Sonia has been a passionate advocate regarding the transformational use of psychedelics and plant medicines since 1998.

Jazmin Pirozek, Board Member
Jazmin Pirozek, HBA, MSc practices and teaches traditional and contemporary methods regarding the Boreal and Amazon forests plants. Currently, Jazmin is a consultant combining scientific and traditional methods, focussing on remediating chronic illnesses for the people of Northern Ontario, Canada. Jazmin has applied concepts of Nishnawbe Aski Nation Health Transformation perspectives in her work to combine Traditional and Contemporary Health practices to create better access to Integrative medicine for all.


What is the Canada Supports Alliance?

The Canada Supports Alliance was started by the CPA as a way to disclose all relevant stakeholders behind their association. It is, at its core, a group of likeminded companies who are working together to advance the interests of psychedelic medicine in Canada. Again, we were curious about who exactly these stakeholders were, so we investigated the subject and prepared dossiers on each of the companies for you to review:

Gwella describe themselves as “nature lovers with a passion for mushrooms, accessibility and creating.” They offer a small selection of legally derived nootropic mushroom products, and on their community page explain “our driving forces are intentional wellness and to ensure that anyone, outside of a clinical setting, who wishes to improve themselves through the incredible power of functional and psychedelic mushrooms, will be able to do so.”

Waves Pear Coaching is a service for those interested in learning plant medicine. Their About page explains, “After years of struggle with mental health symptoms, Peter was ready to try something different and attended his first psychedelic meetup in 2017. Following his transformative experiences with plant medicine, Peter became involved in the local Calgary psychedelic community helping to facilitate events…. He empowers people to see themselves in new ways and their problems from new perspectives, allowing them to release years of pain, and heal themselves.”

Wake Network “are focused on advancing the field of naturally derived psilocybin mushroom compounds and delivering them through genetics-based psychedelic therapies.” They are looking to be the first to bring a prescription psilocybin mushroom microdose product to market, with teams in Jamaica and Canada. They currently sell a collection of legally derived mushroom products on their site.

Nectara is an online community created to help people use psychedelic experiences to transform their lives. They offer masterclasses and have some free video resources on their website.

Mindcure is a software and technology company that provides clinicians and patients with a software tool that will help them to personalize and optimize their psychedelic therapy experience. Their software provides tools to aid in the therapeutic process as well as track and monitor relevant clinical data.

The Holos Foundation is a registered non-profit “dedicated to integrating psychedelic medicines into the heartland region of the country as they become legally available.” Their mission is is to raise awareness about the benefits of psychedelic medicines and to train psychotherapists to be ready to provide psychedelic assisted therapy in Northwest AR when it becomes legally available.

Field Trip are a team of seasoned medical professionals, therapists and business-people who are helping to bring psychedelic therapy into the modern world. They have facilities in Toronto, ON, New York, NY, and Los Angeles, CA which provide an alternative to traditional forms of psychotherapy for those looking for help. They are passionate about changing minds, improving mental wellbeing for all and creating a happier and healthier world.

The Sentinel is a retread in Kaslo, BC that exists to realize the full potential of humanity, creating a mindful world through cutting-edge transformative practices. They offer unique programs and diverse gathering spaces in a tranquil setting overlooking beautiful Kootenay Lake and the soaring Purcell Range. They attract visitors from every corner of the globe to our intimate workshops and retreats, as well as produce and curate virtual programming. We are constantly reviewing, and when necessary enhancing our protocols to secure the well-being of our visitors.

The Flying Sage is a community of psychedelic healers and educators in Vancouver using peer support to heal one another, strengthen connection and promote harm reduction. They offer tripsitting services and have some merch on their site as well.

The ATMA Journey Centre is devoted to a mission of helping deliver effective and innovative healing and transformative experiences that awaken the inner healer and allow for a deeper connection with self, with others and with the beauty of our world. They provide courses through which Canadian therapists and medical professionals can receive training so that they can assist their patients with psychedelic therapy.

Roots to Thrive is a team of leading psychotherapists, therapists and medical professionals. They provide an evidence-informed program aimed at activating our innate, individual and collective human capacity for resilience. The Roots to Thrive journey promotes the development of personal resources to buffer us from stress and improve our ability to thrive. With resilient roots we can access the inner resources necessary to self-actualize into our highest, most confident and authentic self. They help clients seeking ketamine-assisted therapy.

Entheotech describe themselves as a Psilocybin and Ketamine wellness company based in the Okanagan Valley. They offer Threshold & Microdose Therapy and Psychedelic Therapy Training. They also have a selection of different physiotherapy services offered, and specialise in interventional pain treatments.

Enfold Institute is an organization that “designs transformational experiences for you to heal, grow, and create a deep connection with yourself and source.” Beyond offering one-off experiences, they create transformational containers that bring together preparation exercises and reflection, retreats, breathwork, somatics, nourishing meals, meditation and mindfulness practices, and integration coaching.

Green Economy Law is a firm whose primary focus is providing green businesses and nonprofits services by legal professionals with specialized knowledge of how environmental concerns increasingly intersect with business operations in new forms like carbon pricing and ESG ratings. They offer a variety of pricing models from Hourly, to flat-rate, to subscription and could be a great choice if you run a green corp or a non-profit and are looking for ethically aligned counsel.

Segno “from the sign” Flow is a brand & movement aimed at promoting awareness of various tools & strategies to examine consciousness, including psychedelics. Although their website is still not active, and their Instagram and Facebook pages don’t seem to indicate they are actively selling anything yet, it looks like they plan to offer some kind of clinical psychedelic products in the future.

Psygen is a manufacturer of pharmaceutical-grade psychedelic drug products for clinical research and therapeutic applications. Psygen has applied to Health Canada for a corporate Dealer’s License which will allow them to manufacture, possess, sell, import, export and analyze psychedelic substances. The company is actively developing and constructing their 6000sq/ft lab capable of large-scale synthesis, formulation and distribution of the psychedelic compounds mentioned above. Psygen intends to be the leader in psychedelic supply chain solutions and is committed to supporting the research renaissance in the clinical treatment of a wide variety of mental health issues.

Cybin are on a mission to revolutionize mental healthcare. Their website says they are “dedicated to fundamentally changing the mental healthcare experience for those affected by mental illness, and their loved ones, through delivering powerful and effective new psychedelic-based therapies that are accessible to all. We believe that psychedelic therapies will be key to addressing the mental health crisis by transforming the treatment landscape.” They offer a variety of different therapeutic services for those in need, including programs to help support the underserved population.

Wayfound is a psychological clinic founded in 1999 and based in Calgary, AB. They are recognized experts in the field of first responder and general mental health. We have clinics across Canada and have developed a suite of proprietary products and interventions based on the experience we have gathered and research we have completed with our clients. They offer a variety of different clinical services, and are passionate about the growth in the psychedelic therapy space.

Calyx Law are a law firm specialized in the cannabis and psychedelics space. Their vision is to provide unparalleled legal guidance to businesses in the cannabis and psychedelics spaces, helping to generate value and growth through patents and intellectual property. They offer a wide variety of legal services to companies in this space, and are a passionate voice in the defense of the benefits of these substances.

What is the MORA All About?

The Memorandum of Regulatory Approval (or “MORA”,) is a long document which aims to provide Canadian lawmakers with a framework with which they can retool the existing laws around psychedelics (especially psilocybin) as a therapeutic drug (especially in palliative care and with end-of-life patients.)

Essentially, this is a reference tool that can be used by the Canadian government to help draft laws that will allow for medical professions and clinical practitioners in Canada to have access to psilocybin in the treatment of palliative patients – those with serious conditions who are close to end-of-life, where the priority is ensuring their happiness and comfort.

This is widely seen as the first step towards a more broad acceptance of psilocybin and other psychedelics in therapeutic care. Much the same way as cannabis was first accepted within the medical community and allowed to be prescribed and taken by those with a prescription, this could be the very first step towards getting legal shrooms into the hands of Canadians!

In the attached letter, the CPA explains that,

“The attached MORA provides for the legal, controlled use for medicinal purposes, under the supervision of an authorized medical professional, of both natural and synthetic psilocybin.”

They draw attention to the fact that Canadians are overwhelmingly supportive of allowing the use of psychedelics in therapy, citing that:

“82% of Canadians support allowing psilocybin-based treatment for people suffering from a terminal illness”

According to a survey conducted earlier this year with over 1,000 participants.

Noting the mental health crisis currently facing the nation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and the wealth of scientific and clinical research supporting the benefits of psychedelics, the CPA goes on to explain,

“Enacting the MORA framework attached will give Canadians and their doctors new tools to face this crisis head-on.”

They conclude by saying,

“We strongly wish to work with you and Health Canada in the timeliest way possible to enable appropriate legal access. By doing so, we are assuring Canadians their constitutional right to security of the person under Section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. We will also get a new therapy into the hands of doctors and their patients in time to improve and save the lives of countless Canadians suffering from mental illness.”

The rest of the document is essentially providing a reference tool for lawmakers showing how similar legislation has been written in Oregon, and for the Cannabis Act.

Obviously this is only one small step in a long journey. What the Canadian government will do with this remains to be seen, but the fact that the gears are in motion is massively encouraging news to anyone interested in seeing psychedelics being taken more seriously in Canada!

What Does this Mean for Canadians?

So we’ve explained who the Canadian Psychedelic Association is, who comprises the Canada Supports Alliance, what the MORA is all about, but now for the million dollar question: what does all this mean for your average Canadian?

In the short-term: not much. I wouldn’t expect to be seeing psilocybin mushroom tea available at the pharmacy any time soon. It is highly likely that if (when) psilocybin is re-classified as a substance by Canadian lawmakers, it will not have all the restrictions lifted. What this MORA aims to provide instead is a new system to regulate the production, prescription and therapeutic use of psilocybin, in line with what has been done for cannabis in the past.

If Canadian lawmakers choose to work with the CPA (and it seems very likely that they will,) what this could mean is that Canadian healthcare workers and medical professionals will have the ability to use psilocybin therapy in their work, should they deem fit. It’s important to note that this bill is all about giving the freedom of choice to Canadian healthcare professionals to be able to use psilocybin in the treatment of palliative and end-of-life patients. We are still a long ways off from having psilocybin be readily available over-the-counter like we have now with cannabis, tobacco and alcohol.

However, this framework would represent a massive step in the right direction for Canadian lawmakers, and will make it much easier for health professionals in the country to continue exploring the healing power of psilocybin!

In the meantime, Shroom Bros will stay here to be your #1 trusted source on all things psilocybin – and your go-to shop to buy magic mushrooms online!

How do Magic Mushrooms Affect the Brain

With regard to hallucinogens like psilocybin—an ingredient of so-called “magic mushrooms” (e.g., Psilocybe cubensis)—it may be high time to reconsider long-standing hypotheses related to their actions in the human brain.

Although psilocin (the active metabolite of psilocybin)and other classical hallucinogens like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have complex pharmacology with high affinities for multiple neurotransmitter receptors, it has long been appreciated that their psychedelic actions correlate best with 5-HT2A–serotonin receptor agonism. Indeed, in 5-HT2A knockout mice, classical hallucinogens are devoid of activity. Importantly, the psychedelic actions of psilocybin in humans are abolished by pretreatment with relatively selective 5-HT2A antagonists. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that psilocybin and other classical hallucinogens exert their psychedelic actions in humans via activating 5-HT2A serotonin receptors.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is pnas.1121358109fig01.jpg

Psilocybin diminishes brain activity and connectivity. (A) Psilocybin, which is inactive, is metabolized to the active ingredient psilocin. Psilocin then activates many neurotransmitter receptors (B) to modulate activity on excitatory pyramidal and inhibitory GABA-ergic neurons (C). (B) Affinity values for psilocin are expressed as –log in nanomoles (pKi) and are from the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Programs Ki Database. (C) Psilocin interacts with various receptors on large excitatory pyramidal neurons and smaller inhibitory neurons. Psilocin may interact with excitatory (orange) or inhibitory (red) receptors to augment or inhibit neurotransmission. Psilocin’s net effect is a decrease in neuronal activity and connectivity as measured by fMRI.

Although there is consensus regarding the pharmacological actions of classical hallucinogens, the neuronal mechanisms responsible for the psychedelic actions of hallucinogens remain controversial. Thus, some investigators have observed that LSD-like hallucinogens can enhance pyramidal neuron activity by activating 5-HT2A serotonin receptor signaling. These findings that hallucinogens activate glutamatergic neurotransmission are consistent with many other studies demonstrating that 5-HT2A receptors were enriched on Layer V glutamatergic neurons although we and others have noted that 5-HT2A receptors are also found on GABA-ergic interneurons. Indeed, 5-HT2A agonists can also augment inhibitory neuronal activity. Taken together, these previous findings have implied that the actions of hallucinogens such as psilocybin might be due to a mixture of actions on both excitatory (e.g., pyramidal) and inhibitory (e.g., GABA-ergic interneuronal) neuronal circuits. Conceivably, then, hallucinogens like psilocybin could induce their psychedelic effects via augmenting either excitatory or inhibitory neuronal activity in humans. Unfortunately, because of medical, legal, human use, and societal concerns, well-controlled studies of hallucinogen actions in humans have languished since the early 1960s.

In PNAS, Carhart-Harris et al. successfully execute an important study that begins to fill in our gaps regarding hallucinogen actions in humans. Surprisingly, they demonstrate that psilocybin decreases surrogate markers for neuronal activity [cerebral blood flow and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals] in key brain regions implicated in psychedelic drug actions. They also report that psilocybin appears to decrease brain “connectivity” as measured by pharmaco-physiological interaction.

To perform these studies, Carhart-Harris et al. recruit 15 experienced hallucinogen users for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion and BOLD fMRI studies. The individuals were scanned before and after receiving i.v. doses of placebo or psilocybin (2 mg). Individuals were also rated for the subjective effects of psilocybin or placebo. Not surprisingly, psilocybin exerted a robust psychedelic effect with individuals reporting alterations in consciousness, time perception, and visual perceptions within minutes of psilocybin administration.

Coincident with these profound perceptual alterations, decreases in cerebral blood flow were observed in key brain regions long implicated in psychedelic drug actions—the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices and thalamus. Intriguingly, the intensity of the psychedelic experience significantly correlated with decrements in blood flow in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex. Carhart-Harris et al. also report what they refer to as decreases in “functional connectivity” between the ventral medial

Psilocybin appears to decrease brain “connectivity” as measured by pharmaco-physiological interaction.

prefrontal cortex and other regions that they interpret to indicate overall diminished connectivity.

Overall, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that psilocybin diminishes activity in key brain regions and networks implicated in hallucinogen actions. These provocative findings are important because they challenge many long-held models regarding hallucinogen actions that have focused mainly on their ability to enhance excitatory neurotransmission and overall brain activity.

The findings of Carhart-Harris et al. are also important because they provide nice proof that, provided appropriate safeguards are in place, psychedelic drug actions can once again be rigorously deconstructed in normal human volunteers. Psychedelic drugs are unique in their abilities to profoundly alter human awareness and perception, and these studies provide important hints regarding the neuronal substrates of human consciousness.


This study is based on brain images taken from nine participants who were either injected with psilocybin or a placebo. The scientists used those images to create a “whole-brain connectome” which provides a picture of all the physical neurons in the brain, as well as the activity of the neurotransmitters that are being shuttled back and forth.

During your average day in the human brain, neurons are constantly firing and neurotransmitters are traveling well-trodden paths through the brain, somewhat like cars on a freeway. On magic mushrooms, those networks are “destabilized”, Kringlebach explains.

Previous research has shown that new networks appear in tandem. It’s as if those cars on the freeway were given free rein to stray from the highway and take back roads towards new destinations.

Scientists are beginning to understand how this works. For instance, psilocybin (as well as psychedelics like DMT) mimic serotonin, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of happiness or love. Kringelbach suggests that these mushrooms do more than simply affect serotonin flow in the brain.

“We wanted to investigate the role of neurotransmission in dynamically changing the activity in whole-brain networks — and how this changes neurotransmitter release in return,” he explains.

The models showed that the brain is able to tap into new networks by coupling the effects of neuron activity and the release of neurotransmitters, like serotonin. The release of neurotransmitters and the firing of neurons work together – and when you have one without the other, the whole system falls apart.

When the scientists adjusted their model to have these processes work independently, they found that they weren’t able to recreate the same “destabilization” of networks that you would usually see when someone is on magic mushrooms. The same breakdown in their pattern happened when they replaced the typical serotonin receptors utilized by magic mushrooms (5-HT2A receptors) with other types of serotonin receptors.

Taken together, this suggests that both the receptors themselves, and the patterns of neuron activity are necessary for psilocybin to really work.


Knowing that both receptors and neuron activity are needed, says Kringlebach, could help better understand how to use the drug as a therapy. In turn, these models can help us visualize an enduring mystery within the human brain, says Kringlebach.

“It has long been a puzzle how the brain’s fixed anatomical connectome can give rise to so many radically different brain states; from normal wakefulness to deep sleep and altered psychedelic states,” he says.

We only have a fixed amount of hardware in the brain, yet we’re running highly complicated software that produces dreams, consciousness, and — if someone is on a drug like DMT — “breakthrough experiences.”

If the magic mushrooms demonstrate anything, it’s that the brain can learn to use its fixed hardware in very different ways, if the right ingredients are involved. The trick is figuring out what tools the brain needs to run different types of software on that hardware.

In the future, the team hopes that their model could help us learn how we can run different types of software in our brains, and in doing so, help treat conditions like depression.

“This new model will give us the much needed, causal tools for potentially designing new interventions to alleviate human suffering in neuropsychiatric disorders,” Kringlebach says.

Recent therapeutic trials of “classical” psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin (from magic mushrooms) or LSD, have reported benefits to wellbeing, depression and anxiety. These effects seem to be linked to a sense of “ego dissolution” — a dissolving of the subjective boundaries between the self and the wider world. However, the neurochemistry behind this effect has been unclear. Now a new paper, published in Neuropsychopharmacology, suggests that changes in brain levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate are key to understanding reports of ego dissolution — and perhaps the therapeutic effects of psychedelics.

Natasha Mason at Maastricht University, the Netherlands, and colleagues recruited 60 participants for their study. All had taken a psychedelic drug before, but not in the three months prior to the study. Half received a placebo and the other half were given a low to moderate dose of psilocybin (0.17 mg/kg of body weight).

The team then used a technique called proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to look at concentrations of glutamate (as well as other neurochemicals) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus — two regions that have been implicated as key to the psychedelic drug experience. The team also looked at patterns of “functional connectivity” within networks of brain regions, a measure of how closely correlated brain activity is across those regions. Six hours after taking the drug or placebo, the participants reported on their subjective experiences using two surveys: The 5 Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness and the Ego Dissolution Inventory.

As the researchers expected (based on the findings of earlier research), those given the drug reported increased feelings of ego dissolution, as well as altered states of consciousness. They also showed disruptions in the connectivity of particular networks, including the default mode network, which has also been implicated in past work on the effects of psychedelic drugs..

But, for the first time in humans, the team also observed higher levels of glutamate in the mPFC and lower levels in the hippocampus after taking psilocybin — and they linked these changes to different aspects of ego dissolution. Increases in the mPFC were most strongly linked to unpleasant aspects, such as a loss of control over thoughts and decision-making, and also anxiety. Decreases in the hippocampus, meanwhile, were most strongly linked to more positive aspects, such as feelings of unity with the wider world, and of having undergone a spiritual-type experience.

The hippocampus is our most important memory structure. Based on earlier work on the impacts of psychedelic drugs on patterns of brain connectivity, it’s been suggested that a temporary reduction or loss of access to memories about our own lives might contribute to a weakening of the “self”. The new work suggests that changes in glutamate levels in the hippocampus might be key to this process.

But if glutamate rises in the mPFC are linked to unpleasant aspects of ego dissolution, and also to anxiety, how does this fit in with trial results finding that psychedelic drugs can treat anxiety disorders?

It’s not entirely clear. Psychedelics are known to bind with one particular type of serotonin receptor, called 5-HT2A receptors. This then causes immediate changes in the glutamate system, which could be responsible for producing short-term feelings of anxiety. But it might be that longer-term reduction in anxiety levels is related more to 5-HT2A receptor activation itself, rather than glutamate, the researchers suggest.

It’s also been suggested that activation of glutamate networks (via the 5-HT2A receptor) increases levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, which promotes the health and growth of new brain cells. Animal work provides evidence that psychedelic drugs indeed promote plasticity in the brain. And people with major depression and stress disorders have been found to have reduced plasticity. The new data provide indirect evidence that psychedelics might increase neuroplasticity in the human cortex by increasing glutamate, the researchers write. If correct, this could help with understanding how psychedelic drugs can treat depression.

More work is clearly needed to fully understand all these processes. But there’s a lot of interest in the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelic drugs right now, and the new study does help to clarify the underlying neurobiology of the psychedelic state. As the researchers write, the findings “provide a neurochemical basis for how these substances affect individuals’ sense of self, and may be giving rise to therapeutic effects witnessed in ongoing clinical trials.”

How Long Do Shrooms Last?

How do shrooms work?

how long do shrooms last?

Psilocybin mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms, or more simply, shrooms, are considered a psychedelic. Psychedelics are commonly known as drugs with hallucinogenic effects, and while that is partially true, psychedelics are actually a very specific set of drugs that can bond to the 5-HT2a serotonin receptor.

Shrooms contain a drug called psilocybin. When ingested, your body breaks that psilocybin down into its dephosphorylated cousin, psilocin. Psilocin is molecularly very close to serotonin – a naturally-occurring neurotransmitter in humans, other mammals, and even some worms and insects as well as plants and fungi. It’s so close to serotonin, in fact, that it’s capable of bonding with certain serotonin receptors, especially the 5-HT2a receptor. It’s not perfectly understood how exactly shrooms cause their psychedelic trips, it’s understood that it has to do with this interaction.

How long do shrooms take to kick in?

How long it will take for you to start feeling the effects of magic mushrooms depends primarily on how they are ingested. If the mushrooms are eaten as whole mushrooms, the onset can be anywhere from 20-40 minutes. If the mushrooms are ground into a fine powder and mixed with lemon juice or made into tea, the onset can be much faster – around 5-10 minutes. Gummies and chocolates tend to come on in about 15-30 minutes.

How long does a shroom trip last?

How long your magic mushroom trip is going to last will depend primarily on the following factors:


  • How much did you take?
    You should be able to quantify this in the weight of the dried product for consistent measuring.
  • What kind of shroom did you take?
    You can read details about all the different kinds of shrooms in our shroom shop – but some tend to last longer than others.
  • How were they taken?
    As a general rule of thumb, whole shrooms will last a little longer but produce a more mellow trip, and teas/chocolates/gummies tend to be more intense, but shorter in duration.
  • Who’s taking them?
    A number of factors matter here: height, weight, age and all play a role. People who have consumed psilocybin recently will also exhibit higher tolerance to subsequent doses. There are also certain pre-existing medical conditions that can affect the overall duration of the trip.
  • Have you taken any other drugs?
    It can be hard enough to estimate what psilocybin will do and how it will last; adding other psychoactive drugs can have unpredictable effects on the overall experience.
  • Are you in a calm and peaceful, or a more high-energy environment?
    The kind of energy that you surround yourself with and take in while you’re tripping will affect a number of things, including the duration of the trip.

And many more. In general, you should budget about 4-8 hours for the trip to completely end, including any sort of “afterglow.” Typically the peak will be around 1-2 hours in, and will fade from there – although it is common to experience “waves,” so if you think you feel yourself coming down, don’t be caught off guard if it was just a bump on the roller coaster!

What’s it like coming down from shrooms?

coming down from shrooms

Coming down from shrooms by most accounts is considered to be a generally pleasant experience as compared with coming down off other drugs. Psilocybin is not inherently addictive, and it is quite rare for people to get addicted to mushrooms. There are a few reasons for this – but a big one is thought to be the fact that psilocybin doesn’t affect the body’s dopamine receptors. Most addictive substances somehow manipulate the body’s regulation of dopamine. Dopamine is the chemical that makes us feel motivated, accomplished, and productive while serotonin (which is what psilocin mimics) is what makes us feel calm, relaxed, and happy.

In general, your “come down” from shrooms will be about the back half of your trip. So, a 6-hour trip you might spend 1 hour climbing, 2 hours speaking, and 3 hours “coming down.” It’s a very gentle kind of experience that tends to lend itself well to introspection and deep conversations. It’s a really important and wonderful part of the experience, because it gives you time to connect the wild thoughts and deep insights that came to you from the fungus with your conscious, sober mind.

This is also a great time to journal about your experience, and record your thoughts. Just make sure not to jump behind the wheel of a car or anything, until you’re sure you’re firmly planted back in reality.

How Long Do shrooms stay in your system?

Shrooms are almost completely flushed from the body’s system within 24 hours. If you’re being tested for drugs, shrooms are completely undetectable after 48 hours in urine tests. Traces can last up to 90 days in hair follicles, but this form of testing is extremely unlikely.

Unlike with LSD which can have a longer half-life, psilocybin and psilocin are both completely broken down by the body and expelled within a couple days. The chances of experiencing flashbacks, etc. as you might have heard of before is also quite small.

How long are shrooms detectable in a drug test?

how long are shrooms detectable in a drug test

Shrooms are detectable in your urine up to 48 hours after consumption – so if you’re planning a camping trip with some buddies, try not to have to piss in a cup on Monday morning. It is, however, quite likely that shrooms will go completely undetected, as the majority of commonly used urine tests for drug use do not actually search for psilocybin or psilocin.

It’s worth mentioning that there are certain drug tests that are capable of detecting much more trace amounts of psilocybin in the body’s hair follicles, and those can stick around for 90 days. These are extremely uncommon in day-to-day use though – so if you’re not training for a boxing match, or applying to the CIA, you should be A-OK.


So, there are a number of factors but the Cole’s Notes:

Shrooms will last in total anywhere from 4-8 hours.

You’ll be at the “peak” of your high from about a quarter of the way through to halfway through, and start coming down from there.

Shrooms will be completely undetectable in a urine test after 48 hours, and all traces will be gone from your body within 90 days.